Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources

Islamabad, Pakistan

Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources

Islamabad, Pakistan

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Jan H.U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Rabbani M.A.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

Molecular genetic fingerprints of indigenous turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) genotypes were developed using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker to elucidate the genetic diversity among the genotypes. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. The amplification was accomplished by using 10 primers and the specific PCR working program. Ten decamer-primers generated 95 RAPD fragments, of which 92 fragments were polymorphic with 96.84% of polymorphism. Some of the RAPD markers were useful for genotypes discrimination and identification. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different level of genetic polymorphism. Amplified fragment sizes ranged from 200 to 3640 bp. Pair-wise Nei and Li's similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.00 to 0.71 for 20 genotypes of turmeric. A dendrogram was constructed based on the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. Cluster analysis of data using UPGMA algorithm placed the 20 genotypes of turmeric into four groups that are somewhat congruent with classification based on morphological characters proposed by earlier works. This analysis grouped all genotypes from Bannu with two Haripur genotypes and clearly differentiated Kasur and Bannu genotypes into separate groups. This method of analysis can be helpful in selecting diverse parents and give broadness to the germplasm base of turmeric breeding programs in the future. ©2010 Academic Journals.


Akbar F.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shahid Masood M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Genetic diversity among 20 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions was examined at DNA level by means of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ten primers used produced a total of 93 RAPD fragments, of which 70 (75%) were polymorphic. Each primer generated 5 to 17 amplified fragments with an average of 9.3 bands per primer. Based on pair-wise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, Nei and Li's similarity coefficients were computed to assess the associations among the accessions. Pair-wise similarity indices varied from 0.65 to 0.91. A UPGMA cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities located most of the accessions far apart from one another, showing a high level of polymorphism. Genetically, all the genotypes were classified into two major groups and six subgroups or clusters. A single accession (22243) was relatively distinct from rest of the accessions and created independent cluster. In conclusion, even with the use of a limited set of primers, RAPD technique revealed a high level of genetic variation among sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of Pakistan. This high level of genetic diversity among the genotypes suggested that RAPD technique is valuable for sesame systematic, and can be helpful for the upholding of germplasm banks and the competent choice of parents in breeding programs.


Akbar F.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Khan S.J.,Gomal University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world's oldest oil crops and has been cultivated in Asia since ancient times. The breeding potential of the germplasm accessions held in PGRP gene-bank has hardly been exploited to date. This study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic variability in the local sesame genotypes using 16 qualitative and quantitative traits. A total of 105 sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of Pakistan were used. A considerable level of variation was recorded for a number of morphologic and agronomic traits, while limited diversity for observed among the accessions for characters like stem hairiness, flower color (white with purple shading), seed color and to some extent phyllody disease. The correlation coefficient analysis indicated that plant height, capsules plant-1, capsule length and 1000-seed weight had the significant positive effect on seed yield. The characters related to maturity, days to flower initiation and days to 50% flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to establish similarity and dissimilarity patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first three PC axes explained 54.21% of the total multivariate variation, while the first four PC axes explaining 63.64%. Plant height, days to maturity, capsules plant-1 and seed yield plant-1 were the major determinants of the genetic diversity in the collection. Cluster analysis places all the accessions into seven groups. Clustering was not associated with the geographical distribution instead accessions were mainly grouped due to their morphological differences. Elite sesame germplasm has been selected on the basis of best agro-morphological performance from 105 sesame collections. These results have an important suggestion for sesame germplasm agro-morphological assessment, enhancement, categorization and conservation in Pakistan.


Jan H.U.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Rabbani M.A.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Turmeric is an important medicinal plant and cultivated spice crop in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation and relationship among turmeric genotypes using 21 qualitative and quantitative traits. A total of 20 genotypes collected from three eco-geographical areas (Bannu, Haripur and Kasur) of turmeric cultivation in Pakistan were studied under field conditions. In qualitative trait light green leaf color, light orange yellow rhizome color and greenish white flower color were found in abundance in most of the genotypes. The leaves, rhizomes and flowers of turmeric plants collected from Bannu and Haripur were light green, yellow and yellowish-white in color, while those of Kasur area were dark green, dark orange and whitish green in color, respectively. A considerable level of variability was displayed by various genotypes for some of the quantitative traits measured. Pattern of variation among the genotypes was different for different agro-morphological traits. The largest variation was observed for plant height, leaf length, leaf width, total and fresh number of leaves, whereas relatively, a low level of variability was detected in most of the remaining quantitative traits. Agro-morphological data was also analyzed by numerical taxonomic techniques using two complementary procedures: cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). Phenogram based on Euclidean distance coefficients placed 20 genotypes into two main clusters with three sub-groups in the 2nd cluster. Genotypes groups were primarily associated with morphological differences among the collections and secondly with the consumer preference and horticulture use. Principal component analysis reordered genotypes into four broad groups that had within cluster similarities and inter-cluster morphological variation. Our study revealed that the evaluated germplasm of turmeric appeared to have narrow genetic base which underwent high level of genetic erosion and selection pressure. This is perhaps due to the use of same ancestors and similar seed source by the farmers for cultivation of crop in selected areas of the country. However, this preliminary study of traditional turmeric landraces from Pakistan provided useful information regarding their horticultural and medicinal potential. The given method of analysis may be helpful in selecting diverse parents and broadening local germplasm base of turmeric for future breeding programs.


Ali Turi N.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Farhat U.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Rabbani M.A.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Genetic diversity among 120 different accessions of Brassica species were characterized with the help of SSR markers. These species include Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus. 39 SSR primers were used and they produced 162 scorable bands in which 105 were polymorphic. The average rate of polymorphic loci was 46%, which indicates high genetic diversity among the accessions. The UPGMA cluster analysis revealed two main clusters and nine sub-clusters. From the gene pool of the collected Brassicas considerable variation was observed among the B. rapa accessions, which clearly differentiate the B. rapa of northern part of the country from the B. rapa of rest of the country. Groupings also reflected geographical similarities and suggested misidentification of certain accessions in the germplasm collection. Based on our study, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool in assessing the genetic diversity of leafy Brassica germplasm.


Sultan M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shahid Masood M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Guar is an important commercial and export crop of Pakistan. Genetic improvement of guar regarding its yield potential has never been addressed in Pakistan. Present work was carried out to evaluate 101 guar accessions collected from diverse areas of Pakistan. Fourteen quantitative and three qualitative characters were taken under observation to estimate substantial variation and relationship among guar genotypes and identify promising accessions for future exploitation. Considerable and dissimilar level of variability was noticed for a number of agro-morphological traits on the basis of analysis of variation. High variation in germplasm was found for days to maturity, plant height, pods per plant and pod length. The correlation coefficient analysis depicted positive and significant correlation of branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant and pod width with seed yield plant-1, while days to flower initiation, 50% flowering, days to maturity and plant height were found in significant negative correlation with seed yield plant-1. Principal component analysis displayed significant variation with 30.79% of the total variation for PC1, 16.71% for PC2, PC3 for 12.66% and PC4 contributed 10.09% to the total variation. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on agro-morphological traits divided 101 guar accessions into four main groups and six sub-clusters. Clustering was found in association with similar geographic origins and also with morphological differences. On the basis of greater yield potential, seeds per pod, pods per plant and early maturity, promising genotypes have been identified for guar variety development and future breeding programs.


Khan S.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, including 87 breeding lines of Pakistan were evaluated for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12.5% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 16 scorable protein bands were witnessed, of which 13 (81%) were polymorphic and 3 (19%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 100 to 120 kDa. Two bands i.e. 5 and 6 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied from 0.67 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all rice accessions into two main clusters i.e. I and II comprising 4 and 83 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low level of genetic diversity was detected for the total seed protein profiles, eighty seven rice breeding lines of Pakistan. Therefore, in the light of our investigations it is highly suggested to include a high number of rice genotypes for better rice breeding programs. Hence SDS-PAGE along with 2-D gel electrophoresis is further recommended. Our research will meaningfully support the cataloging, improvement, genetic assessment and conservation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes in Pakistan.


Sultan M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Zakir N.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shahid Masood M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Genetic diversity is very important for developing new crop varieties with high yield and other desirable traits. Consequently it assists in increasing food production and improving the level of human nutrition. Genetic diversity among 30 guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) accessions was observed at DNA level using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High quality genomic DNA was extracted and PCR conditions were optimized for amplification using 12 random primers. Twelve decamers generated a total of 76 amplification products, of which average proportion of polymorphic loci was 73%. The number of amplified products produced by each primer ranged from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.3 bands per primer. Dice similarity coefficients ranged from 0.49 to 0.93. The highest similarity index of 93% was observed between accessions '27350' and '27351', whereas '24293' and '24302' were the most varied accessions with similarity index of 49%. On the basis of similarity matrix analysis via unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), accessions were grouped into three main groups and nine subgroups or clusters. Two accessions '21702' and '24293' remained in distinct clusters. The results from the present study would assist in the identification and demarcation of elite guar accessions for local consumption, and also for export purposes. This work will significantly add to broaden the scope of selection of diverse parent accessions in order to expand germplasm base for future breeding programs.


Zada M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Zakir N.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Ashiq Rabbani M.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The study aims to determine the extent of genetic variability and relationships among the Brassica carinata germplasm using agro-morphological characters. The germplasm assayed comprised 134 accessions acquired from abroad and collected locally from diverse ecologies of Pakistan. All the genotypes were characterized for 33 agro-morphological characters ranging from seedling emergence to crop maturity. The data were analyzed by numerical taxonomic techniques using 2 complementary procedures: cluster and principal component analyses. A considerable level of variability was noticed for a number of agro-morphological traits. The largest variation was observed in seed yield (kg/ha) whereas a moderate variability was observed in plant height, main raceme length, silique/main raceme, glucosinolate contents and erucic acid. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the 134 accessions into seven main clusters. First three principal components (PCs) accounted for a total of 39.03% of variability among the accessions using agro-morphological traits. PC1 had 17.79% of total variation in agro-morphological traits; PC2 depicted 11.45% of total morphological variability, while PC3 accounted for 9.80% of the total variation. On the basis of greater yield potential, seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, oil contents, protein contents and oleic acid four promising genotypes (25939, 25942, 25994 and 26190) have been identified for future breeding and variety development programs.


Zada M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Zakir N.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources | Rabbani M.A.,Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) germplasm, comprising 94 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm accessions were obtained from PGRP Gene bank, Institute of Agri-Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), NARC, Islamabad Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of B. carinata genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12.25% polyacrylamide gels using standard protocols. A total of 31 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (45.27%) were polymorphic and 17 (54.83%) were monomorphic. The molecular weight of various bands ranged from 8 to 180 KDa. Similarity coefficients varied from 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all accessions into five main groups. Overall low level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension) in Pakistani local accessions, while medium to high level of genetic variability was observed for exotic material. As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type molecular markers may reveal variability with more help. Our investigation suggests that more germplasm of Ethiopian mustard need to be acquired to broaden the genetic base for research and development.

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