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Oh E.S.,University of Baltimore | Li M.,University of Washington | Fafowora T.M.,University of Baltimore | Inouye S.K.,Institute of Aging Research | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective Systematically identify preoperative clinical risk factors for incident postoperative delirium in individuals undergoing hip fracture repair in order to guide clinicians in identifying high risk patients at admission. Methods This is a systematic review of prospective observational studies with estimation of association between preoperative risk factors and incident postoperative delirium in multivariate models. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and WorldCatDissertations. Hand searches were conducted in selected journals and their supplements. Results Search yielded 6380 titles and abstracts from electronic databases and 72 titles from hand searches, and 10 studies met inclusion criteria. The following risk factors were significant in bivariate models: cognitive impairment, age, gender, institutionalization, functional impairment, body mass index (BMI), albumin, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologist classification, acute medical conditions, polypharmacy, and vision impairment. Among all of these risk factors, cognitive impairment most consistently remained statistically significant after adjusting for other risk factors in multivariate models, followed by BMI/albumin and multiple comorbidities. Conclusion In our systematic review, cognitive impairment was one of the strongest preoperative risk factors for postoperative delirium after hip fracture surgery. Preoperative cognitive assessment may be one of the most useful methods of identifying those who are at high risk for postoperative delirium and prioritizing delivery of delirium prevention measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Hagedorn T.J.,Institute of Aging Research | Dufour A.B.,Institute of Aging Research | Dufour A.B.,Harvard University | Riskowski J.L.,Institute of Aging Research | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function.Methods:Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and center of pressure excursion index from plantar pressure scans were used to create foot posture and function subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios of having each specific disorder were calculated for foot posture and function subgroups relative to a referent 3 quintiles.Results:Pes planus foot posture was associated with increased odds of hammer toes and overlapping toes. Cavus foot posture was not associated with the foot disorders evaluated. Odds of having hallux valgus and overlapping toes were significantly increased in those with pronated foot function, while odds of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were significantly decreased in those with supinated function.Conclusions:Foot posture and foot function were associated with the presence of specific foot disorders. © 2013 Hannan et al. Source

Wang Z.,Institute of Aging Research
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2016

Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) can control the level of malonyl-CoA in cell through the decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA, and plays an essential role in regulating fatty acid metabolism, thus it is a potential target for drug discovery. However, the interactions of MCD with CoA derivatives are not well understood owing to unavailable crystal structure with a complete occupancy in the active site. To identify the active site of MCD, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the interactions of human mitochondrial MCD (HmMCD) and CoA derivatives. The findings reveal that the active site of HmMCD indeed resides in the prominent groove which resembles that of CurA. However, the binding modes are slightly different from the one observed in CurA due to the occupancy of the side chain of Lys183 from the N-terminal helical domain instead of the adenine ring of CoA. The residues 300-305 play an essential role in maintaining the stability of complex mainly through hydrogen bond interactions with the pyrophosphate moiety of acetyl-CoA. Principle component analysis elucidates the conformational distribution and dominant concerted motions of HmMCD. MM_PBSA calculations present the crucial residues and the major driving force responsible for the binding of acetyl-CoA. These results provide useful information for understanding the interactions of HmMCD with CoA derivatives. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Crandall J.P.,Diabetes Research and Training Center | Crandall J.P.,Institute of Aging Research | Trandafirescu G.,Diabetes Research and Training Center | Kishore P.,Diabetes Research and Training Center | And 6 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background. Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has shown promising effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animal models and is also reported to have cardioprotective properties, but human studies are limited. In a pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that resveratrol improves glucose metabolism and vascular function in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods.Ten subjects aged 72 ± 3 years (M ± SD) with IGT were enrolled in a 4-week open-label study of resveratrol (daily dose 1, 1.5, or 2 g). Following a standard mixed meal (110 g carbohydrate, 20 g protein, 20 g fat), we measured 3-hour glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and secretion (corrected insulin response at 30 minutes). Endothelial function was assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (reactive hyperemia index) before and 90 minutes postmeal. Results did not differ by dose, so data were combined for analysis.Results.At baseline, body mass index was 29 ± 5 kg/m 2, fasting plasma glucose 110 ± 13 mg/dL, and 2-hour glucose 183 ± 33 mg/dL. After 4 weeks of resveratrol, fasting plasma glucose was unchanged, but peak postmeal (185 ± 10 vs 166 ± 9 mg/dL, p =. 003) and 3-hour glucose AUC (469 ± 23 vs 428 ± 19, p =. 001) declined. Matsuda index improved (3.1 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5, p =. 03), and corrected insulin response at 30 minutes was unchanged (0.6 ± 0.1 vs 0.5 ± 0.5, p =. 49). There was a trend toward improved postmeal reactive hyperemia index (baseline vs resveratrol postmeal delta -0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.2 ± 0.3, p =. 06). Weight, blood pressure, and lipids were unchanged.Conclusions.At doses between 1 and 2 g/day, resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and postmeal plasma glucose in subjects with IGT. These preliminary findings support the conduct of larger studies to further investigate the effects of resveratrol on metabolism and vascular function. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Hurria A.,Medical Oncology and Experimental TherapeuticsCity of Hope National Medical CenterDuarte | Cohen H.J.,Center for the Study of Aging and Human DevelopmentDuke UniversityDurham | Rowland J.H.,Office of Cancer SurvivorshipNational Cancer InstituteBethesda | Leach C.R.,Office of Cancer SurvivorshipNational Cancer InstituteBethesda | And 9 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2016

In May 2015, the Cancer and Aging Research Group, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging through a U13 grant, convened a conference to identify research priorities to help design and implement intervention studies to improve the quality of life and survivorship of older, frailer adults with cancer. Conference attendees included researchers with multidisciplinary expertise and advocates. It was concluded that future intervention trials for older adults with cancer should: 1) rigorously test interventions to prevent the decline of or improve health status, especially interventions focused on optimizing physical performance, nutritional status, and cognition while undergoing cancer treatment; 2) use standardized care plans based on geriatric assessment findings to guide targeted interventions; and 3) incorporate the principles of geriatrics into survivorship care plans. Also highlighted was the need to integrate the expertise of interdisciplinary team members into geriatric oncology research, improve funding mechanisms to support geriatric oncology research, and disseminate high-impact results to the research and clinical community. In conjunction with the 2 prior U13 meetings, this conference provided the framework for future research to improve the evidence base for the clinical care of older adults with cancer. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Source

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