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PubMed | Hong Kong Baptist University, Hayat Hospital Guwahati, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science Guwahati and Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology Guwahati
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology | Year: 2016

The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-, Il-1, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.

PubMed | Hayat Hospital Guwahati, Gauhati University, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati and Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology Guwahati
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology | Year: 2016

Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Daltons lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings.

PubMed | Nalbari College Nalbari and Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology Guwahati
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology | Year: 2016

Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and -glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 g/ml), ABTS(+) (IC50 = 0.82 g/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 g/ml) and also showed notable -glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 g/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

PubMed | Gauhati University and Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology Guwahati
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2015

In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the potential of these indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates to use as microbial inoculation or biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops.

PubMed | Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology Guwahati
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in physiology | Year: 2016

Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms.

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