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Guedj M.,Mirail University | Sorum P.C.,Albany Medical College | Mullet E.,Institute of Advanced Studies
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Purpose: To understand how lay people and health professionals in France judge the acceptability of hospitalizing a psychiatric patient against his will. Methods: 123 lay people, 20 nurses, 5 psychologists, and 6 physicians judged the acceptability of involuntary hospitalization in each of 36 scenarios consisting of all combination of 4 factors: patient's adherence to treatment (agrees to take his medications or not); risk of suicide (none, immediate, multiple past attempts); risk of harming others (none, immediate, history of violence against others); attitude of patient's family (favorable to involuntary hospitalization or not). The judgment data were subjected to cluster analysis and subsequently to analysis of variance. Results: 4 clusters were identified and labeled according to the factors that affected judgments: Never Favorable (7 participants, with mean acceptability judgment of 1.30 on a scale of 0-10); Threat to Others (35, with mean judgment of 8.68 when risk high, 2.94 when risk low), Threat to Others or Self and Adherence (88, with mean judgment of 6.89), and Always Favorable (24, with mean judgment of 8.41). Conclusions: 95% of participants agreed that involuntary hospitalization is acceptable under certain conditions, especially - in accordance with French law - when the patient presents a risk to others. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ahmed R.A.,Kuwait University | Sorum P.C.,Albany Medical College | Mullet E.,Institute of Advanced Studies
Journal of Medical Ethics | Year: 2010

Aim To study the views of people in a largely Muslim country, Kuwait, of the acceptability of a life-ending action such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Method: 330 Kuwaiti university students judged the acceptability of PAS in 36 scenarios composed of all combinations of four factors: the patient's age (35, 60 or 85 years); the level of incurability of the illness (completely incurable vs extremely difficult to cure); the type of suffering (extreme physical pain or complete dependence) and the extent to which the patient requests a life-ending procedure, euthanasia or PAS (no request, some form of request, repeated requests). In all scenarios, the patients were women who were receiving the best possible care. The ratings were subjected to cluster analysis and analyses of variance. Results: Five clusters were found. For 44%, PAS was always very unacceptable, no matter what the circumstances. For 23%, it was unacceptable, but less so if the patient was older or requested it repeatedly. For 16%, it was unacceptable if the patient was young but was acceptable if the patient was elderly. For 5%, it was unacceptable if the patient had extreme pain but was acceptable if completely dependent. For 11%, it was unacceptable if the patient did not request it but acceptable if she did. Conclusion: The majority of the Kuwaiti university students opposed PAS either categorically or with a slight variation according to circumstances. Nonetheless, a minority approved of PAS in some cases, particularly when the patient was elderly.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: physicsworld.com

The University of Birmingham's AstroSoc, Institute of Advanced Studies, and Institute of Gravitational Wave Astronomy invite you to join us for a public lecture by Professor Cole Miller from the University of Maryland, USA, on the mysteries of black holes… Black holes beguile scientists and the public alike with their inevitability and extremes. They act as one-way portals: once inside, nothing, not even light, can escape. But that property, which makes them such excellent players in science-fiction stories, also makes them difficult to study, because black holes by themselves in empty space are nearly silent. Thus of the hundred million or so black holes expected to be in our Milky Way galaxy, only about thirty have been identified with confidence. Fortunately, in just the last year a powerful new tool has emerged to study black holes and other compact objects: gravitational waves. Professor Miller will discuss, with demonstrations, the properties of black holes and strong gravity, and will look forward to a universe that we can now see with new eyes. Professor Miller, the IAS Distinguished Visiting Fellow, is one of the leading authorities in theoretical astrophysics, particularly in the study of black holes and neutron stars. The talk begins at 7:00 pm, in the Large Lecture Theatre of the Poynting Physics Building (R13 on the campus map) on the University's Edgbaston campus. The event is suitable for all ages. All under-18s must be accompanied by a parent, teacher or guardian.


Tian Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Filiatrault A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Filiatrault A.,Institute of Advanced Studies | Mosqueda G.,University of California at San Diego
Journal of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2015

This second of two companion articles examines the efficiency of a number of hysteresis models to simulate the nonlinear moment-rotation behavior of sprinkler piping tee joints made of various materials and connection types. The proposed hysteresis models are capable of capturing the strength degradation, change of stiffness during unloading, as well as energy dissipation of full-scale sprinkler joints tested by the authors in a previous study. The hysteresis models were then embodied in nonlinear rotational springs at joints combined with elastic beam elements for the piping segments to capture the seismic response of full-scale fire sprinkler piping systems. These system level numerical models were validated through simulations based on the seismic tests presented in the first companion article. Nonlinear dynamic response-history analyses adequately predict the seismic response of the test specimens in terms of displacement, acceleration, and moment-rotation at the piping joints. The proposed numerical models represent a useful tool to assess the seismic demands of pressurized fire sprinkler piping systems in buildings. Copyright © A. S. Elnashai.


Morales G.E.,Autonomous University of Nuevo León | Lopez E.O.,Autonomous University of Nuevo León | Mullet E.,Institute of Advanced Studies
Sexuality and Disability | Year: 2011

The attitudes towards sexual relationships among persons with learning disabilities (PLD) of parents of children without disabilities were compared with the attitudes of family caregivers (parents of PLD) and with the attitude of professional caregivers. The importance of different situational factors that may alter acceptability judgments (i.e., gender, etiology of the disability, person's present level of autonomy, use of contraceptive devices, and partner's age and possible handicap) with regards to the sexuality of PLD was examined through the use of concrete cases. All the participants lived in Mexico. The only notable difference in attitude that was observed was between parents of PLD suffering from trisomia 21 and parents of PLD suffering from a neuromotor disorder. As a result, it may be erroneous to consider parents of PLD as a homogeneous group regarding attitudes to sexuality. Three different basic philosophies regarding the expression of sexuality among PLD were observed. They were called Mainly Unacceptable (37% of the sample), Mainly Acceptable (36%), and Depending on Circumstances (27%). In this later philosophy, contraception was by far the major determinant of acceptability. © The Author(s) 2010.


Good M.R.R.,Institute of Advanced Studies
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2013

A single real scalar field of spin zero obeying the Klein-Gordon equation in flat space-time under external conditions is considered in the context of the spin-statistics connection. An imposed accelerated boundary on the field is made to become, in the far future, (1) asymptotically inertial and (2) asymptotically noninertial (with an infinite acceleration). The constant acceleration Unruh effect is also considered. The systems involving nontrivial Bogoliubov transformations contain dynamics which point to commutation relations. Particles described by in-modes obey the same statistics as particles described by out-modes. It is found in the nontrivial systems that the spin-statistics connection can be manifest from the acceleration. The equation of motion for the boundary which forever emits thermal radiation is revealed. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.


D'Amico G.,New York University | Gobbetti R.,New York University | Kleban M.,New York University | Kleban M.,Institute of Advanced Studies | Schillo M.,New York University
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2013

Higher-form flux that extends in all 3+1 dimensions of spacetime is a source of positive vacuum energy that can drive meta-stable eternal inflation. If the flux also threads compact extra dimensions, the spontaneous nucleation of a bubble of brane charged under the flux can trigger a classical cascade that steadily unwinds many units of flux, gradually decreasing the vacuum energy while inflating the bubble, until the cascade ends in the self-annihilation of the brane into radiation. With an initial number of flux quanta Q 0≳N, this can result in N efolds of inflationary expansion while producing a scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations with amplitude and tilt consistent with observation. The power spectrum has an oscillatory component that does not decay away during inflation, relatively large tensor power, and interesting non-Gaussianities. Unwinding inflation fits naturally into the string landscape, and our preliminary conclusion is that consistency with observation can be attained without fine-tuning the string parameters. The initial conditions necessary for the unwinding phase are produced automatically by bubble formation, so long as the critical radius of the bubble is smaller than at least one of the compact dimensions threaded by flux.


Nodwell M.B.,Institute of Advanced Studies | Koch M.F.,Institute of Advanced Studies | Alte F.,Institute of Advanced Studies | Schneider S.,TU Munich | Sieber S.A.,Institute of Advanced Studies
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the active vitamer of vitamin B6 and acts as an essential cofactor in many aspects of amino acid and sugar metabolism. The virulence and survival of pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis depend on PLP, and deficiencies in humans have also been associated with neurological disorders and inflammation. While PLP can be synthesized by a de novo pathway in bacteria and plants, most higher organisms rely on a salvage pathway that phosphorylates either pyridoxal (PL) or its related vitamers, pyridoxine (PN) and pyridoxamine (PM). PL kinases (PLKs) are essential for this phosphorylation step and are thus of major importance for cellular viability. We recently identified a pyridoxal kinase (SaPLK) as a target of the natural product antibiotic rugulactone (Ru) in Staphylococcus aureus. Surprisingly, Ru selectively modified SaPLK not at the active site cysteine, but on a remote cysteine residue. Based on structural and biochemical studies, we now provide insight into an unprecedented dual Cys charge relay network that is mandatory for PL phosphorylation. The key component is the reactive Cys 110 residue in the lid region that forms a hemithioactetal intermediate with the 4'-aldehyde of PL. This hemithioacetal, in concert with the catalytic Cys 214, increases the nucleophilicity of the PL 5'-OH group for the inline displacement reaction with the γ-phosphate of ATP. A closer inspection of related enzymes reveals that Cys 110 is conserved and thus serves as a characteristic mechanistic feature for a dual-function ribokinase subfamily herein termed CC-PLKs. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Coles P.R.,Institute of Advanced Studies
Perception | Year: 2013

A study of portrait paintings by various artists revealed that the sitter's face is more likely to be illuminated by a light source to the artist's left than to his right. Although the sitter's face may be turned towards the artist's left or right side with equal frequency, the interaction of illumination and profile orientation does not appear to be arbitrary. This finding is interpreted in the context of other findings on left and right in picture perception, and a new explanation of the relationship between profile orientation and the personality of the sitter is offered. © 1974 a Pion publication printed in Great Britain.


Paes R.L.,Institute of Advanced Studies | Lorenzzetti J.A.,National Institute for Space Research | Gherardi D.F.M.,National Institute for Space Research
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters | Year: 2010

The very large extent of the Brazilian coast (∼ 8000 km) and the growing maritime vessel traffic demand that research be made on ancillary methods to monitor and control ship's traffic in national waters. An important tool for this purpose is the use of orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, particularly due to its ability to work day and night and to suffer almost no interference of cloud coverage. In this letter, we investigate some ship detection concepts, as applied to TerraSAR-X (TSX) ScanSAR images (16-m resolution), in VV and HH polarization. Ocean clutter statistical parameters are estimated, and the KolmogorovSmirnov test is used to verify the goodness of fit for the K-distribution to TSX images. A constant false alarm rate (CFAR) target detection algorithm is developed, and its performance is verified. Incidence angle, CFAR's window size, and probability of false alarm influence are further analyzed. © 2010 IEEE.

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