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Kaur V.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology | Bera M.B.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology | Panesar P.S.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology | Kumar H.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Microbial exopolysaccharides are of high molecular weight, environment friendly valuable natural polymers, having applications in diverse areas such as food industry, pharmaceutical industry, cement systems and cosmetics industries. Welan gum, a microbial product holds an important place among the exopolysaccharides due to its novel properties and potential applications. The biopolymer welan gum is synthesized by the fermentation process mainly by the Alcaligenes sp., and is composed of polymer of tetrasaccharide backbone chain containing l-mannose, l-rhamnose, d-glucose, and d-glucuronic acid. It acts as a thickening, suspending, binding, emulsifying, stabilizing and viscosifying agent. It has important commercial applications in the cement systems. This review is primarily focused on the microbial production, purification, recovery, and the characterization based on the available published literature on the welan gum. Besides this, the biosynthesis and the various process factors affecting the production as well as properties of welan gum and its various applications have also been addressed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bule M.V.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Singhal R.S.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Ubiquinone-10 (CoQ10), a vitamin-like lipophilic compound mainly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, is vulnerable to light, oxygen and temperature. Microencapsulation of this bioactive material would protect it from such degradative effects. The present study deals with selection of a proper diluent for CoQ10 and emulsion stability followed by microencapsulation using spray drying. Microencapsulation of CoQ10 was performed using different blends of gum arabic, maltodextrin and modified starches as wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated for the content and storage stability of CoQ10 for 6 weeks. The photostability of encapsulated CoQ10 was evaluated by exposing microcapsules to UV light for 120 min. CoQ10 microcapsules prepared using pure gum arabic as wall material had an enhanced stability at 30 ± 2 °C as well as under UV light as compared to free CoQ10, as seen from the t 1/2 values of the same. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Luo W.-B.,South China University of Technology | Han Z.,South China University of Technology | Zeng X.-A.,South China University of Technology | Yu S.-J.,South China University of Technology | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2010

Chitosan solution was processed by applying pulsed electric fields (PEF) with different strengths up to 25 kV cm- 1. Changes of the physicochemical properties of chitosan, such as molecular weight and crystallinity degree, were measured by analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), viscosity molecular weight (Mv), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), FTIR and UV spectra. The results showed that after being treated at 25 kV cm- 1, the chitosan granules were significantly deformed with many pits and cracks appeared on the surface. Mv was decreased with the increasing electric field strength, for example, the Mv was decreased from 2.81 × 105 Da (initial chitosan) to 1.54 × 10 5 Da after the PEF treatment at 25 kV cm- 1. Meanwhile, the crystalline region of the treated sample was significantly damaged from XRD patterns. All results showed that the PEF technique is a possible method to obtain low molecular-weight chitosan. Industrial Relevance: Chitosan solution was treated by using pulsed electric fields (PEF) with different strengths up to 25 kV•cm-1. Changes of the physicochemical properties of chitosan were measured by analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), viscosity molecular weight (Mv), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), FTIR and UV spectra. The results showed that the PEF technique is a promising method for scale-up industrial manufacture of low-molecular-weight chitosan. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Panesar P.S.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Whey, the liquid remaining after milk fat and casein have been separated from whole milk, is one of the major disposal problems of the dairy industry, and demands simple and economical solutions. In view of the fast developments in biotechnological techniques, alternatives of treating whey by transforming lactose present in it to value added products have been actively explored. Whey can be used directly as a substrate for the growth of different microorganisms to obtain various products such as ethanol, single-cell protein, enzymes, lactic acid, citric acid, biogas and so on. In this review, a comprehensive and illustrative survey is made to elaborate the various biotechnological innovations/techniques applied for the effective utilization of whey for the production of different bioproducts. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Sun Y.-X.,Qiqihar Medical University | Kennedy J.F.,Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Four water-soluble purified polysaccharides (CRPsA-1, CRPsA-2, CRPsB-1 and CRPsB-2) were obtained from the fruiting bodies of Chroogomphis rutilus by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography and Sepharose 6 Fast Flow column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined by chemical methods, gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). On the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and Fe2+-chelating ability assay, the antioxidant activities of CRPsA-1, CRPsA-2, CRPsB-1 and CRPsB-2 were investigated. Among these fractions, CRPsB-1 and CRPsB-2 containing glucuronic acid had the higher scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals, and more potent Fe2+-chelating activity than CRPsA-1and CRPsA-2 containing no glucuronic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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