Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard

Six-Fours-les-Plages, France

Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard

Six-Fours-les-Plages, France
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Trigos S.,San Vicente Mártir Catholic University of Valencia | Garcia-March J.R.,San Vicente Mártir Catholic University of Valencia | Vicente N.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Vicente N.,Aix - Marseille University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molluscan Studies | Year: 2015

We studied the bivalve Pinna nobilis in experimental conditions in order to measure its respiration rate (RR) and evaluate its adaptability to variable environments. We measured the RR of 30 fan mussels (34.0-64.9 cm shell length) and produced RR profiles at three different temperatures: estimated optimum living temperature of 20 °C and minimum and maximum conformability temperatures (16 and 25 °C respectively). The fan mussel is a high oxygen consumer and RR is reduced at the conformability limits of temperature in comparison to the estimated optimum living temperature (T = 16 °C, 3.1 ± 1.2 mg O2 h-1; T = 20 °C, 12.0 ± 3.9 mg O2 h-1; T = 25 °C, 8.5 ± 3.8 mg O2 h-1; n = 18 in each case). The data indicate that individuals were more stressed at 16 than at 25 °C. These observations will be of value for evaluating the potential distribution of P. nobilis, especially in shallow lagoons during summer when oxygen supply is potentially limiting. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London, all rights reserved.

Kline D.I.,University of California at San Diego | Kline D.I.,University of Queensland | Teneva L.,Stanford University | Teneva L.,Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Understanding the temporal dynamics of present thermal and pH exposure on coral reefs is crucial for elucidating reef response to future global change. Diel ranges in temperature and carbonate chemistry parameters coupled with seasonal changes in the mean conditions define periods during the year when a reef habitat is exposed to anomalous thermal and/or pH exposure. Anomalous conditions are defined as values that exceed an empirically estimated threshold for each variable. We present a 200-day time series from June through December 2010 of carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters measured on the Heron Island reef flat. These data reveal that aragonite saturation state, pH, and pCO2 were primarily modulated by biologically-driven changes in dissolved organic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA), rather than salinity and temperature. The largest diel temperature ranges occurred in austral spring, in October (1.5 - 6.6°C) and lowest diel ranges (0.9 -3.2°C) were observed in July, at the peak of winter. We observed large diel total pH variability, with a maximum range of 7.7 - 8.5 total pH units, with minimum diel average pH values occurring during spring and maximum during fall. As with many other reefs, the nighttime pH minima on the reef flat were far lower than pH values predicted for the open ocean by 2100. DIC and TA both increased from June (end of Fall) to December (end of Spring). Using this high-resolution dataset, we developed exposure metrics of pH and temperature individually for intensity, duration, and severity of low pH and high temperature events, as well as a combined metric. Periods of anomalous temperature and pH exposure were asynchronous on the Heron Island reef flat, which underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of co-occurrence of multiple stressors on coastal ecosystems. © 2015 Kline et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Coupe S.,University of Toulon | Couvray S.,University of Toulon | Couvray S.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Tarnowska K.,University of Toulon | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2011

In France, there are raising concerns about the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, whose populations decline. In this context, molecular analyses contribute to the better understanding of processes that shape populations, which is required to adapt management and conservation programmes. The present study aimed at developing an in situ non-destructive spine sampling method and an ISSR-PCR approach, both dedicated to the genetic analysis of individuals and populations. Forty-five individuals of 3 close populations were studied. In situ spine sampling proved relevant, leading to the clear genotyping of all purified DNAs without any contamination. Molecular analysis revealed high genetic diversity with a large proportion of low-frequency ISSR markers. Six ISSR primers produced 154 scorable polymorphic markers of which 118 (77%) were present at a frequency lower than 25%. Based on genotyping profiles obtained with 3 ISSR primers, significant genetic differentiation between the studied populations was detected. Taken together, these results revealed that both in situ spine sampling and ISSR method are relevant for molecular analyses and that they will likely find their application in future conservation and management programmes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Couvray S.,University of Toulon | Couvray S.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Miard T.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Bunet R.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2015

During the past 40 y, natural stocks of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have declined sharply in many sites along the French Mediterranean coast. Despite current management measures, this resource remains at low densities, raising concerns among commercial fishermen and managers. The reseeding of depleted sea urchin populations is currently under consideration. In this study, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to assess the feasibility of such an operation and to evaluate the impact on both the population structure and genetic diversity of wild communities. The genetic diversity and population differentiation of wild populations was assessed before reseeding five depleted populations with 250,000 hatchery-produced juveniles. A year after release, parentage assignment tests were performed on small recaptured sea urchins to address their origin. Sea urchins from the hatchery were found at two of five sites, representing 3% and 12% of the total recaptured urchins in the concerned sites. The genetic analysis performed with six microsatellite loci revealed genetically homogeneous populations in the area studied. Within and among populations, genetic diversity seems not to be affected by introducing juveniles from the hatchery into wild populations. Therefore, following strict recommendations, reseeding could be considered a potential and efficient management tool to restock or sustain overexploited populations in areas where natural recruitment appears insufficient.

Richard S.,University of Toulon | Prevot-D'Alvise N.,University of Toulon | Bunet R.,University of Toulon | Simide R.,University of Toulon | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most frequently used herbicides in the world. We evaluated the effect of Roundup 360 SL on the expression of interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-10 (il-10) and heme-oxygenase-1 (ho-1) in the gills, intestines and spleen of young European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax L.), aged 8 mo. A group of fish was exposed to 647 mg/L of Roundup for 96 h. This treatment did not alter gene expression levels of il-1β and il-10 cytokine in the intestines, but significantly lowered both levels in the gills (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 respectively). Expression levels of ho-1 were increased significantly in the three organs of fish from the treated group (the gills p = 0.04, the intestines p = 0.004 and the spleen p < 0.001). These changes may in turn negatively impact the immune system of European sea bass exposed to Roundup. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Trigos S.,University of Valencia | Garcia-March J.R.,University of Valencia | Vicente N.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Tena J.,University of Valencia | Torres J.,University of Valencia
Mediterranean Marine Science | Year: 2014

Knowledge of the feeding habits of marine species is fundamental for a better understanding of their relationship with the environment. Although phytoplankton has traditionally been reported as the main food source consumed by the Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis, recent studies have revealed that detritus represents an important food source for this species. We analysed the degree of acceptance of muddy detritus and the utilisation of its organic matter (OM) by P. nobilis on a group of 21 individuals [30.3-59.7 cm of total shell height (Ht)]. The specimens were collected between July and September 2012 in two areas (43°04'25" N; 5°46'7" E and 43°04'34" N; 5°47'32" E) of the Embiez archipelago, north-western Mediterranean (France). Our studies show that P. nobilis retains high quantities of OM from muddy detritus (47.50 ± 11.23% of filtered OM) irrespective of shell size. Smaller individuals, however, actively filter more detritus than large ones. The values of retained OM, together with previous studies on stomach contents, suggest that muddy detritus is a more important OM source than phytoplankton for this species.

Othmani A.,University of Toulon | Bunet R.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Bonnefont J.-L.,Institute Oceanographique Paul Ricard | Briand J.-F.,University of Toulon | Culioli G.,University of Toulon
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2015

The antifouling (AF) properties of phytochemicals isolated from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Taonia atomaria have been assayed against several colonizing organisms. Eight compounds were isolated and their chemical structures characterized by spectroscopic techniques (NMR, MS) and comparison with literature data. The phytochemical composition of the extracts of T. atomaria was found to be mainly attributable to sesquiterpenes. Accordingly, a new germacrane, germacra-4(15),5,10(14)-trien-9-ol (1), is described together with five other sesquiterpenoids (-)-gleenol (2); α-cadinol methyl ether (3), (-)-trans-calamenene (4), (1S, 5E, 7S) 1-acetoxygermacra-4(15),5,10(14)-triene (5), and 4-peroxymuurol-5-ene (6). Moreover, two lipidic compounds, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z, 17Z)-eicosa-5,8,11,14,17-pentaenoic acid (7), and a glycerol derivative, sn-3-O-(geranylgeranyl)glycerol (8), were also isolated. The known compounds 3, 6–7 are described here for the first time from this alga. In comparison with commercial antifoulants [tributyltin oxide (TBTO), zineb, and copper pyrithione (CuPT)], compounds 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 were evaluated for their toxicity and capacity to inhibit the settlement of five bacteria isolated from marine biofilms. Toxicity and anti-settlement activity of 1, 2, and 6 were also assessed against two barnacle species (Amphibalanus amphitrite and Balanus perforatus). Regarding bacteria, a significant anti-adhesion effect was recorded for 8 (EC50 between 25 and 50 μM) with moderate associated toxicity. Considering the settlement inhibition of barnacle cyprids, (-)-gleenol (2) exhibited a strong AF efficacy (EC50 < 5 μM) with moderate toxicity. In addition, as B. perforatus showed similar responses to the reference A. amphitrite with all compounds, this species may be proposed as an alternative model for anti-macrofouling assessment, especially in temperate areas. Overall, these results suggest that a number of the tested compounds could, alone or in combination, play a critical role in limiting the fouling at the T. atomaria surface. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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