Institute Oceanografia

Rio Grande, Brazil

Institute Oceanografia

Rio Grande, Brazil
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Mycobacteriosis affects various species of fish, including those cultured with commercial purposes. It is a chronic systemic with granuloma forming disease known as fish mycobacteriosis. In the last few years the interest of fish culture has been increasing due to the reduction of the natural fish stocks. However the intensification of fish culture has collaborated to the development of diseases such as mycobacteriosis, causing losses due to the chronic characteristics and difficult diagnosis. This study is to report two cases of mycobacteriosis observed at "Laboratório de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG)", one for Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus and another for barber goby Elacatinus figaro. The Fite-Faraco staining protocol was used. Membranes of mycobacterial cells contain a waxy substance composed of mycolic acids. These are β-hydroxy carboxylic acids with chain lengths of up to 90 carbon atoms. The property of acid fastness is related to the carbon chain length of the mycolic acid found in any particular species. The fish mycobacterium is much less acid and alcohol fast than the tubercle bacillus and the classic Ziehl-Neelsen Staining Protocol may give false results. The presence of mycobacterial antigen lesions was studied by immunohistological methods using monoclonal antibodies to Mycobacterium marinum. Humans may be infected by these bacteria and develop cutaneous granuloma. In this paper the necessity is stressed for a correct diagnosis of the disease, contributing to the prevention of its establishment in aquatic facilities, and thus, preserving cultured fish as well as human beings from infection.

The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined - (1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Duarte B.,Institute Oceanografia | Caetano M.,Inrb Ipimar Instituto Nacional Of Recursos Biologicos | Almeida P.R.,Institute Oceanografia | Almeida P.R.,University of Évora | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

Pools of Zn, Cu, Cd and Co in leaf, stem and root tissues of Sarcocornia fruticosa, Sarcocornia perennis, Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima were analyzed on a bimonthly basis, in a Tagus estuary salt marsh. All the major concentrations were found in the root tissues, being the concentrations in the aboveground organs neglectable for sediment budget proposes, as seen by the low root-aboveground translocation. Metal annual accumulation, root turnovers and cycling coefficients were also assessed. S. maritima showed the higher root turnovers and cycling coefficients for most of the analyzed metals, making this a phytostabilizer specie. By contrast the low root turnover, cycling coefficient and low root necromass generation makes S. perennis the most suitable specie for phytoremediation processes. Although the high amounts of metal return to the sediments, due to root senescence, salt marshes can still be considered sinks of heavy metals, cycling heavy metals mostly between sediment and root. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lopes R.P.,Institute Oceanografia | Simone L.R.L.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia | Year: 2012

Fossils of the gastropods Diodora patagonica, Zidona dufresnei, Olivancillaria carcellesi, Lamniconus lemniscatus carcellesi and the bivalve Arcinella brasiliana are registered for the first time from the outcrops of Chuí Creek, on the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul State, southernmost Brazil, together with other taxa previously known elsewhere. The specimens were collected in a shallow Pleistocene marine facies exposed at the base of the banks of the creek, in a fossil concentration possibly formed by storm events. The taxa described here live in shallow environments (with the exception of A. brasiliana and Z. dufresnei) with sandy bottoms (except for D. patagonica, T. patagonica, B. odites, C. rhizophorae and A. brasiliana). The presence of L. lemniscatus carcellesi, found living today only in Uruguay and Argentina, indicates a wider distribution for this taxon during the late Pleistocene. © 2012 by the Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia.

Pereira J.C.,Museu Coronel Tancredo Fernandes de Mello | Lopes R.P.,Institute Oceanografia | Kerber L.,Museu de Ciencias Naturais
Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia | Year: 2012

The Chuí Creek, located in the southernmost Brazil, is a fossiliferous outcrop known since the late 1960s, which bears important records of late Pleistocene mammals, other vertebrates and invertebrate fossils. The presence of some taxa (e.g. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linneaus), although mentioned on the literature, is still to be confirmed. Specimens from Chuí Creek belonging to several collections are reexamined and new excavations and geological surveys in the area are being conducted. The new records include isolated teeth of cf. Ursidae and Rodentia (Myocastor cf. M. coypus Molina); a complete and articulated skull and jaw of a tayassuid, Catagonus Ameghino, as well as a left dentary of a juvenile ground sloth, Eremotherium cf. E. laurillardi Lund. The ongoing systematic revision led to the confirmation of the presence of the glyptodont Doedicurus Burmeister, represented by a portion of the carapace; the cervid genera Antifer Ameghino and Morenelaphus Carette; and the equids Equus Linnaeus and Hippidion Owen, represented by cranial and dental remains. These findings expand the knowledge on the diversity of the extinct fauna found in the Chuí Creek, and have biogeographic, biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental implications, which are herein discussed. © 2012 by the Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia.

Aires A.S.S.,Federal University of Pampa | Lopes R.P.,Institute Oceanografia
Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia | Year: 2012

Fossils of terrestrial mammals from the southern Brazilian continental shelf have been known since the late 19th century. The fossils are relatively common and represent several taxonomic groups of the Pleistocene megafauna. Although the systematics of the fossil assemblage is well known, the relative proportions among taxonomic groups and their skeletal elements have not been evaluated yet. Here are presented the results of a survey of the diversity of skeletal elements and taxa among 2,391 specimens belonging to the paleontological collection of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). The survey revealed that the most common taxa are the artiodactyls, ground sloths, glyptodontids and toxodontids, while carnivores, rodents and litopterns are very scarce. The most abundant skeletal elements are osteoderms of cingulates (mostly glyptodontids) and teeth of other groups. Although paleoecological and paleoenvironmental inferences are very hard to obtain because the fossils do not have a stratigraphic setting, encompass a wide time span, of some 700 ky BP, and represent several environments and climates, some patterns of taxonomic abundance are apparently related to ecological factors, while others seem to result from taphonomic processess. © 2012 by the Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia.

Lopes R.P.,Institute Oceanografia
Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia | Year: 2011

Quaternary sediments along the southernmost portion of the Brazilian coast are rich in fossil remains of various terrestrial and marine organisms. This paper presents a description of fossil irregular clypeasteroid echinoids found in this area, with observations on their taphonomy. The identified taxa are Encope emarginata (Leske) and Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske), although the latter is very scarce. All fossils consist of fragments of the test, broken along the ambulacral or interambulacral sutures. The majority of the remains consist of abraded fragments; petaloids are found either intact or collapsed. Many fossils are represented by internal molds formed by the infilling of the organisms' internal cavities by dark muddy matrix. The distribution of the fossils match the pattern observed on recent echinoid remains found along the coast. The relative absence of fossil and recent material of M. quinquiesperforata seems to be a result of taphonomic factors related to environmental processes. © 2011 by the Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia.

Valentim J.M.,University of Aveiro | Vaz N.,University of Aveiro | Silva H.,University of Aveiro | Duarte B.,Institute Oceanografia | And 2 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2013

Different characteristics of Spartina maritima found in two distinct salt marshes located in different estuaries were analysed through interpretation of their local hydrodynamic patterns, as well as the impact of sea level rise on physical processes and consequently on plant dynamics and salt marshes stability. These salt marshes are situated in two of the most important Portuguese coastal systems, Tagus estuary (Rosário salt marsh) and Ria de Aveiro lagoon (Barra salt marsh), which are dominated by physical processes that induce strong tidal currents. They were monitored during one year and plant and sediment samples of S.maritima were collected quarterly in order to determine the vegetation coverage, above and belowground biomass, organic matter and sediment moisture. Residual circulation, tidal asymmetry and tidal dissipation were determined from numerical modelling results of the MOHID 2D model that was applied to each coastal system, considering the actual sea level and a sea level rise (SLR) scenario.Results suggest that the different characteristics found for Spartina maritima in the Rosário and the Barra salt marshes may be related with the diverse hydrodynamic conditions identified for each salt marsh. Consequently, the exploration of SLR scenario predictions indicates how these salt marshes could evolve in the future, showing that the important changes in these hydrodynamic parameters under climate change context might induce significant modifications in the salt marshes dynamics and stability. SLR scenario could lead to changes in nutrients and sediments patterns around the salt marshes and thus vegetation coverage percentage would be affected. Additionally, as a consequence of flood duration increase, sediment moisture will increase causing a stress condition to plants. Hence, the ratio below/aboveground biomass might increase, becoming critical to plants survival under conditions of accelerated sea level rise. Accordingly, both SLR and expected changes in vegetation coverage percentage in controlling salt marshes evolution have important implications in their stability and consequently in coastal management. These conditions are unlikely to be unique to these salt marshes and it is suggested that similar analyses are replicated for other tidally dominated systems to improve understanding and characterization of their dynamics and stability under climate change context. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Duarte B.,Institute Oceanografia | Freitas J.,Institute Oceanografia | Cacador I.,Institute Oceanografia
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2011

Some plants have high ability to absorb heavy metals in high concentrations. In this study, Spartina maritima was tested in conjunction with low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), in order to evaluate the possible use of this plant in phytoremediation processes in salt marshes. Three different LMWOA (citric acid, malic acid and acetic acid) were applied to contaminated intact cores of S. maritima colonized sediment and several heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni) were analyzed in sediment and plant parts. Acetic acid application proved to be the most efficient, enhancing greatly the uptake of all metals analyzed. Citric acid also showed good results, while malic acid proved to be very inefficient in most of the cases. The highest enhancement was observed for Cr with a 10-fold increase of the uptake upon application of acetic acid, while improving the Pb uptake proved to be the most difficult, probably due to its low solubility. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

de Moura Queiros A.,Bangor University | Hiddink J.G.,Bangor University | Johnson G.,Bangor University | Cabral H.N.,Institute Oceanografia | Kaiser M.J.,Bangor University
Biological Invasions | Year: 2011

Introduced ecosystem engineers can severely modify the functioning on invaded systems. Species-level effects on ecosystem functioning (EF) are context dependent, but the effects of introduced ecosystem engineers are frequently assessed through single-location studies. The present work aimed to identify sources of context-dependence that can regulate the impacts of invasive ecosystem engineers on ecosystem functioning. As model systems, four locations where the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve) has been introduced were investigated, providing variability in habitat characteristics and community composition. As a measure of ecosystem engineering, the relative contribution of this species to community bioturbation potential was quantified at each site. The relevance of bioturbation to the local establishment of the mixing depth of marine sediments (used as a proxy for EF) was quantified in order to determine the potential for impact of the introduced species at each site. We found that R. philippinarum is one of the most important bioturbators within analysed communities, but the relative importance of this contribution at the community level depended on local species composition. The net contribution of bioturbation to the establishment of sediment mixing depths varied across sites depending on the presence of structuring vegetation, sediment granulometry and compaction. The effects of vegetation on sediment mixing were previously unreported. These findings indicate that the species composition of invaded communities, and the habitat characteristics of invaded systems, are important modulators of the impacts of introduced species on ecosystem functioning. A framework that encompasses these aspects for the prediction of the functional impacts of invasive ecosystem engineers is suggested, supporting a multi-site approach to invasive ecology studies concerned with ecosystem functioning. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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