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Calleja M.A.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of Las Nieves | Vieites J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Montero-Meterdez T.,Queen Mary, University of London | Torres M.I.,University of Jaen | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Plant-based whole foods provide thousands of bioactive metabolites to the human diet that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases. β-Caryophyllene (CAR) is a common constituent of the essential oil of numerous plants, vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs, and has been used as a flavouring agent since the 1930Â s. Here, we report the antioxidant activity of CAR, its protective effect on liver fibrosis and its inhibitory capacity on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. CAR was tested for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and as a free radical scavenger. CAR had higher inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation than probucol, α-humulene and α-tocopherol. Also, CAR showed high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion. The activity of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme that actively participates in fibrogenesis, was significantly inhibited by CAR. Carbon tetrachloride-treated rats received CAR at 2, 20 and 200Â mg/kg. CAR significantly improved liver structure, and reduced fibrosis and the expression of Col1a1, Tgfb1 and Timp1 genes. Oxidative stress was used to establish a model of HSC activation with overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins. CAR (1 and 10Â μm) increased cell viability and significantly reduced the expression of fibrotic marker genes. CAR, a sesquiterpene present in numerous plants and foods, is as a natural antioxidant that reduces carbon tetrachloride-mediated liver fibrosis and inhibits hepatic cell activation. Copyright © The Authors 2012.

Casals C.,Institute Nutricion Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Gomes S.N.,Centro Universitario Of Joao Pessoa | Contreras G.L.,University of Granada | Rosillo S.,Institute Nutricion Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | And 2 more authors.
Archivos de Medicina del Deporte | Year: 2013

Introduction: There is a controversy concerning to the modulation of hypoxla-induced oxidative stress; in addition, most studies covered mechanism of adaptation to altitude after an acclimation period, and they did not test the effects of acute exposures to hypoxia. Thus, the aim of the study was to establish oxidative status of trained swimmers analyzing the effects of exercise and acute exposure to moderate altitude. Materials and methods: Ten well-trained swimmers (5 females, 5 males) performed two similar mild-intensity training sessions of 90 minutes, one at an altitude of 630 m (normoxia) and the second of 2320 m (hypoxia). Training sessions were regulated to generate blood lactate values slightly higher than anaerobic threshold. 5 ml of blood samples were collected before and immediately after the exercise. Plasma were obtained by blood-centrifugation, samples were stored at -80°C until analysis. Lipid peroxidation markers were hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aipha-tocopherol was analyzed as non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanism. Comparisons between means were performed using one-way ANOVA Results: Acute exposure to hypoxia produced a significant decrease of TBARS (20.78±8.36 nmol/ml, p<0.03) and, after effort, of hydroperoxides (20.78±8.36 nmol/ml, p<0.03) in men. In swimmers of both sexes, plasmatic α-tocopherol significantly decreased by hypoxia (men: 23.06±4.26 nmol/ml, women: 19.51±4.26 nmol/ml, p<0.001). In normoxia condition, women presented lower concentrations of TBARS (20.54±8.36 nmol/ml, p<0.03) and hydroperoxides (2.16±0.87 nmol/ml, p<0.03) than men. Mild-intensity training session did not modify oxidative stress in well-trained swimmers. Conclusions: In previous studies we demonstrated a non-enzymatic antioxidant mobilization from plasma to muscular and hepatic tissues as a response to an oxidative stress situation.Therefore, we conclude that acute exposure to moderate altitude could prevent oxidative stress in swimmers by a fast mobilization of plasmatic α-tocopherol.

Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,University of Granada | Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,Institute Nutricion Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Poncelet D.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2012

Various microbial polymers, namely xanthan gum, gellan gum, pullulan gum and jamilan, were tested as a suitable encapsulating material for Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 1815 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103. Resulting capsules were also studied for their pH and simulated gastrointestinal conditions tolerance. The morphology of the microcapsules was studied using scanning electron microscopy. pH tolerance was tested at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 over a 6. h incubation period. Simulated gastrointestinal conditions were assayed with simulated gastric and pancreatic juices and simulated bile over a 24. h incubation period. Suspensions of probiotic organisms were used as a control. The results from encapsulation with microbial polymers indicate that mixtures of 1% xanthan gum with 0.75% gellan gum and 1% jamilan with 1% gellan gum were the most suitable for microencapsulation. Results for the pH tolerance tests showed no improvement in the viability of cells in relation to the control, except for pH 2.0 where lactobacilli encapsulated in xanthan:gellan gum (1%:0.75%) prolonged their viability by 6. h exposure. Xanthan:gellan gum (1%:0.75%) was the most effective of the encapsulating materials tested in protecting L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus against simulated bile, improving its viability in 1-2. log. CFU when compared with control. The results of this study suggest that microbial polymers are an interesting source of encapsulating material that should be taken into account for prospective studies of probiotic encapsulation for oral delivery applications. © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,University of Granada | Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,Institute Nutricion Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Jimenez-Pranteda M.L.,University of Reading | Aguilera M.,University of Granada | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the administration of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 1815 with two combinations of microbially derived polysaccharides, xanthan: gellan gum (1%:0·75%) and jamilan: gellan gum (1%:1%), on the rat faecal microbiota. Methods and Results: A 10-day feeding study was performed for each polymer combination in groups of 16 rats fed either with placebo capsules, free or encapsulated Lact. plantarum or water. The composition of the faecal microbiota was analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. Degradation of placebo capsules was detected, with increased levels of polysaccharide-degrading bacteria. Xanthan: gellan gum capsules were shown to reduce the Bifidobacterium population and increase the Clostridium histolyticum group levels, but not jamilan: gellan gum capsules. Only after administration of jamilan: gellan gum-probiotic capsules was detected a significant increase in Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group levels compared to controls (capsules and probiotic) as well as two bands were identified as Lact. plantarum in two profiles of ileum samples. Conclusions: Exopolysaccharides constitute an interesting approach for colon-targeted delivery of probiotics, where jamilan: gellan gum capsules present better biocompatibility and promising results as a probiotic carrier. Significance and Impact of Study: This study introduces and highlights the importance of biological compatibility in the encapsulating material election, as they can modulate the gut microbiota by themselves, and the use of bacterial exopolysaccharides as a powerful source of new targeted-delivery coating material. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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