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Rodriguez Dominguez L.,Policlinico Universitario Nguyen Van Troi | Diaz Sanchez M.E.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Ruiz Alvarez V.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Hernandez Hernandez H.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | And 2 more authors.
Revista Cubana de Pediatria | Year: 2014

Introduction: there is a current consensus that the atherosclerotic process begins at childhood and that dyslipidemia is one of the atherogenic risk factors to be studied together with the nutritional assessment for the adequate prevention of atherosclerosis.Objective: to identify some early signs of atherosclerosis such as overweight and dyslipidemias in teenagers. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study of 372 teenagers from "Protesta de Baragua" junior high school. Weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken after 12 hour fasting. Total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were all measured. The statistical analysis included the t test among nutritional assessment and lipid variables between sexes and the error probability was lower than 0.05.Results: weight, height and waist circumference means were higher in males (p< 0.05). Overweight was 23.7 % and from the 90-97th percentile, the excessive abdominal fat was 21.8 %. The mean of total cholesterol, high and low density lipoproteins and triglycerides was similar in both sexes, with no significant relation (p> 0.05). In this group, 18.5 % of adolescents presented with borderline high total cholesterol, 26.6 % showed borderline high triglyceride rate and 7.5 % had high cholesterol, being females predominant.Conclusions: one fourth of adolescents approximately exhibited overweight and increased abdominal fat; almost 25 % had reached borderline and high total cholesterol whereas the most observed lipid disorder was hypertrigliceridemia. © 2014 Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

Puig Pena Y.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Robert Maceo B.A.,Centro Municipal Of Higiene Y Epidemiologia | Leyva Castillo V.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiologia | Year: 2013

Objective: determine the epidemiological factors of interest related to the occurrence of outbreaks of food-borne diseases in Havana from 2006 to 2010. Methods: a retrospective descriptive study was conducted of 130 outbreaks of food-borne diseases analyzed at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene from January 2006 to December 2010. The data were obtained from records kept at the Food Microbiology laboratory of the institution and from epidemiological surveys contained in the National Surveillance Program of the Ministry of Public Health. Results: the places where most outbreaks were reported were staff cafeterias at workplaces (43.4%), mostly caused by Clostridiumperfringens, and households (32.8 %), caused by coagulase positive Staphylococcus and Salmonella. The foods most commonly reported were meat and meat products (52.0 %), mostly from cafeterias at workplaces and schools. Household outbreaks were mainly related to the intake of sweets. 89.2% and 71.0% of the foods were not acceptable according to health indicators for total and fecal coliforms, respectively. Insufficient cooking time, cooking temperature, heating or reheating, inadequate cold or hot preservation and cross-contamination were the main contributing factors leading to the occurrence of outbreaks. Conclusions: the unacceptable microbiological quality of the foods studied reveals non-compliance with best practices in food preparation and preservation, paving the way for contamination and multiplication of pathogenic bacteria.

Santa Jimenez Acosta C.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Maria Elena Diaz Sanchez C.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Garcia Roche R.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene | Gorbea M.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene | Ordonez I.W.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiologia | Year: 2012

Introduction: the epidemiologic situation of the developed countries and most of developing ones is characterized by a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The nutritional status of population plays a significant role in the maintenance of health status. Objective: to analyze the changes occurred in the obesity prevalence and chronic energy deficiency in Cuban regions. Methods: authors analyzed the results of the chronic energy deficiency and of excess weight and obesity obtained from stratified samples and from polihepatitis conglomerates from the First and the Second National Survey of Risk Factors and Non-Communicable Diseases carried out in subjects of both sexes, aged over 15 during 1995 and 2001, respectively. The excess weight was estimated as well as the chronic energy deficiency for western, central and eastern regions of our country in both periods and the reasons of ratios adjusted by age and sex to assess the effect of time on the appearance of excess weight and obesity and to verify the effect of live in different regions of the country on the appearance of excess weight and chronic energy deficiency. Results: there was a decrease of chronic energy deficiency in the study regions and also an increase of excess weight and obesity from 1995 to 2001. The great increment of obesity was obvious in the western region demonstrating that 1995 year was protector of obesity in relation to 2001 (OR = 0.64; CI = 0.59-0.69), whereas for the chronic energy deficiency there was not a significant association (OR = 0.93; CI = 0.81-1.06). Conclusions: data found suggest that the excess weight and obesity frequency is increasing in Cuban population and that there is a worsening of this problem in Cuba. There are marked geographic variations whose determinants are not fully known yet. © 2013 1999, Editorial Ciencias Médicas.

Macias Matos C.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Diaz Sanchez M.E.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Pita Rodriguez G.M.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | Basabe Tuero B.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos Inha | And 2 more authors.
Revista Espanola de Nutricion Humana y Dietetica | Year: 2012

Introduction: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a health problem in Cuba, and there is a lack of information on adolescents. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between excessive weight and adiposity with physical activity, hours of television (TV), and eating habits in adolescents. Material and methods: A total of 604 adolescents (12 years) from Havana were studied. The variables analysed included, body mass index, body composition, history of obesity in infancy, physical activity, hours watching television, eating habits and dietary preferences. A descriptive and correlation analysis was performed. In the logistic regression analysis, excess weight and adiposity were used as dependent variables. Results: Excess body weight was more common in boys. There was high prevalence of excess adiposity, 49.8% in girls and 37.8% in boys. The boys (61.7%) were more active than the girls (33.6%). Just under half (46.7%) of the boys, and 55.9% of the girls spent more than 2 hours/day watching television, which increased to more than 75% for both sexes on Saturdays and Sunday. Making less than 5-6 meals/day doubled the risk of being overweight. Body overweight in infancy was also a risk factor. Not having breakfast increased the risk of adiposity by almost double. Conclusions: Excess weight, and particularly excess adiposity, may be considered a health problem in the adolescents studied. A very high consumption of sugar, an excessive time watching TV, and insufficient physical activity was observed. © 2012 Asociación Española de Dietistas-Nutricionistas.

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