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Montoya A.E.,Hospital Pediatrico Universitario | Behar R.R.,Hospital Pediatrico Universitario | Menendez A.O.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Revista Cubana de Pediatria | Year: 2011

INTRODUCTION. Cystic fibrosis is a disease of airways, pancreas and intestinal tract. The nutritional control is a decisive feature in treatment of disease. The objective of present paper was to characterize a group of patients in nutritional support and rehabilitation phases. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in 7 patients aged under 18 admitted for treatment in the cystic fibrosis specialized unit or the William Soler University Children Hospital of La Habana. At admission and at discharge, we made anthropometric measurements with a classification of malnourished, low weight and normal weight. Values were compared to those of growth and development tables of Cuban population. RESULTS. In three patients a nutritional support intervention was applied and four patients were also treated with supplementary enteral nutrition. During the nutritional assessment it was noted that caloric percentage distribution supplied by foods was of 12% for proteins, 37% for fats and 51% for carbohydrates. Energy supplied by foods consumed was of 4360 kcal, 134,27 g of protein, 177,51 g of fats and 558,20 g of carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the food caloric density and applying the enteral nutrition in patients there were an increment of ponderal gain and an improvement of nutritional status.

Terry Berro B.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Zulueta Torres D.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | de la Paz Luna M.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Rodriguez Salva A.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene | And 2 more authors.
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiologia | Year: 2013

Objective: Characterize the magnitude and severity of iodine deficiency in Cuba. Methods: Characterization of the magnitude and severity of iodine deficiency in Cuba was based on determination of iodinuria and the prevalence of goitre by inspection and palpation. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted using complex two-staged cluster sampling of three selected strata: urban, rural and mountainous, including 67 municipalities and a total of 2 101 schoolchildren aged 6-11. Results: Deficient iodinuria was found in 6.4 % of the children evaluated, with a predominance of the mountainous stratum. Excessive iodine intake was present in all strata. Goitre was classed as moderately endemic, with a prevalence of 27.3 % and a predominance in the mountainous stratum and the female sex. Findings revealed the impact of salt iodization, which was evaluated through examination of urinary excretion as an indicator of recent salt intake. Conclusions: Endemic goitre continues to be a nutritional problem in the population, pointing to the need to conduct more profound studies to identify possible causal relationships.

Rodriguez Dominguez L.,Policlinico universitario Nguyen Van Troi | Diaz Sanchez M.E.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Ruiz Alvarez V.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Hernandez Hernandez H.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | And 2 more authors.
Revista Cubana de Medicina | Year: 2014

Introduction: Everyday atherosclerosis crises manifest in younger people and it is demonstrated the importance of knowing the main factors that cause it, including obesity. In Cuban children and adolescents, overweight and obesity have dramatically increased. Objective: To identify cardiovascular risk factors in supposedly healthy adolescents. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in supposedly healthy adolescents from 12 to 15 years from a secondary basic school. The objective was identifying cardiovascular risk factor and their relationship with hypertension. The sample was constituted by 687 students. Data were registered in the primary data collection form of Havana Research and Reference Centre on Atherosclerosis. Measurements of weight, height and waist circumference were performed. Nutritional status by percentiles of body mass index and waist circumference were also evaluated. The blood pressure levels were classified according to the percentiles of blood pressure adjusted for age, sex, and height. Results: 46 adolescents (6.6 %) were found to be smokers, the relationship was statistically significant in relation to gender, 96 (13.9 %) were overweight and 64 (9.3 %) were obese; circumference waist showed that 98 (14.2 %) had possible risks, and 56 (8.1 %) were frankly atypical, 4% adolescents had high blood pressure. Male adolescents predominated in all parameters. Family history of obesity occurred in 73 (10.6 %) and the relationship was statistically significant in males. Conclusions: Predominance of smoking, hypertension, overweight, obesity and family history of obesity prevailed in male adolescents males; whereas family history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus prevailed in female adolescents.

Alvarez V.R.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Pena Y.P.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Acosta M.R.,Hospital Dr Luis Diaz Soto
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biomedicas | Year: 2010

In the development and functioning of immune system influenced essential factors like an appropriate nutritional balance and the exposition, from birth, to different microorganisms. The intestinal microbiota, although beneficial, must to be maintained within some margins. We propose that modifications in the intestinal microbiota leading to a chronic state of endotoxemia could be a key factor associated with increase in the adiposity. In obese patients Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes level is increased, which could be modified with specific changes in the lifestyle. The immune system and the metabolism have evolved in a close interrelationship with broad morphological and functional links. It is emphasize the fact that the great portion of immune system cells are located in or around the bowel and that be justly the energy accumulation as visceral fat the more associated one with the diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, strokes, cardiovascular disease and even some types of cancer (obesity comorbidities). The intrauterine malnutrition could a priori, to creates the immune system dysfunction, subsequently potentiated by a poor breastfeeding, an obesogenic diet and physical inactivity. All these factors will favor a more aggressive intestinal microbiota provoking a chronic inflammation characteristic of obesity. Interactions among the intestinal microbiota, the immune system, inflammation, obesity and comorbidities suggest that the immune response could be noxious in metabolic overload conditions and that the energy accumulation as fat mainly the intra-abdominal one could be the organism response to unfavorable modifications of intestinal microbiota.

Santa J.A.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Armando R.S.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica Hospitalaria | Year: 2011

Introduction: Obesity and overweight prevalences among pregnant women and their associated complications such as diabetes gestational, high blood pressure, macro fetus, cesarean required deliveries, and some others adverse effects both for mothers and their babies are increasing during the last years. Objective: To describe the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Cuban pregnant women and their possible relationship to some other variables. Methods: Data were obtained from a secondary analysis of the pregnant women included in the Sentinel Sites located all over the country in the two health areas of each province with the higher and the lower prevalences of low birth weight. Data included time at which prenatal care was initiated, body weight at the beginning of the pregnant period, hemoglobin levels at the beginning and at the third trimester and birth weight. Variables were compared between "normal" and overweight and obese pregnant women using ANOVA and Chi squared tests. Results: 21,7% of pregnant women initiated their pregnancy with overweight and 7,0% were found to be obese. Age average and weight gain during the pregnancy period as compared with the standards were higher in obese and overweight pregnant women. Also the percentage of overweight babies was higher in the group of obese and overweight pregnant women. Discussion: Overweight and obesity prevalences are very high for pregnant women and this is related to the same results found for the women population in Cuba. It was also demonstrated that about half of both normal and obese and overweight pregnant women do not gain enough weight as it is established according to their nutritional status at the beginning of the pregnant period. Higher macrosomia percentages among new born babies was found among obese and overweight mothers indicating that maternal overweight and obesity are considered as risk factors of metabolic disorders in the new generations from the beginning of their life. This shows the importance of the prenatal period for the prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are associated to a body weight gain grater than recommendations and with an increased prevalence of babies with high birth weight. Low percentages of overweight and obesity in adolescent pregnant women was also found.

Vazquez L.R.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Revista Espanola de Nutricion Comunitaria | Year: 2012

To try to establish a discourse from philosophy in such complex aspects in today's world as food education and culture, requires an analysis without prejudices of the external and internal reality, since their components by nature point to the discussion, philosophical or not, depending on the knowledge of those who are inserted in the debates. As a general rule, the complexities of this theme should be visualized from the performances in the communities and to intervene in them. Otherwise, certain assumption may be established, either educational or cultural, that at best oversimplifies the essence of these concepts.

Pita-Rodriguez G.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Jimenez-Acosta S.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Revista Cubana de Hematologia, Inmunologia y Hemoterapia | Year: 2011

Anemia is a global health problem affecting both developed and developing countries. The causes of anemia may be multifactorial, and several of them are often present at the same time. The main cause of anemia is the low intake of foods with adequate sources of iron both in quantity and quality. Work is being done in Cuba since the year 1987 aimed at developing intervention programs for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in the population, but despite the great effort, the expected impact has not been achieved, due to the combined influence of various factors. National scientific evidence shows that the low incidence of breastfeeding, the low intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as vitamin deficiency, have an influence on the prevalence of anemia in Cuba. Neither intestinal parasitism nor infection with H. pylori are associated with the prevalence of anemia in the country. Obesity and chronic inflammation would require epidemiological studies describing the potential relationships between these factors.

Acosta S.M.J.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Suarez A.R.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Sanchez M.E.D.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecologia | Year: 2012

Introduction: the surveillance of the maternal nutritional status is conducted in Cuba from 1979, but never has been possible to have our own references for pregnants. Objectives: to compare the nutritional status of pregnants using the Cuban references and that of the Institute of Medicine of the United States of America (IOM) 1990. Methods: using as basement information the sentinel sites for the maternal nutritional surveillance authors assessed the cut points of the IOM 1990 and of the national references of the pregnant nutritional status obtaining the comparison between the body mass index (BMI) for capture, the weight gain during pregnancy according to the initial nutritional status and the pregnant age according to both references. Results: it was possible to verify the existence of a decrease in the low weight pregnants at onset of pregnancy with the use of Cuban standards, the ideal weight gain according to the initial nutritional status is relatively low using both standards, the Cuban tables diagnose more frequently the excess weight and the obesity than that of the IOM, the pregnant aged under 15 are who have a greater ratio of weight gain lower than the ideal one. The significance of the use of own references is demonstrated. Conclusions: The data on maternal nutritional status surveillance are better interpreted according to the Cuban tables because they are obtained from the same population.

Jimenez Acosta S.M.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos | Rodriguez Suarez A.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Revista Cubana de Pediatria | Year: 2013

Introduction: overweight and obesity in children are reaching epidemic dimensions worldwide. Obesity is one of the main contributing factors to the global burden of chronic diseases, disability and extensive use of health services, hence the importance of preventing it since the earliest childhood. Objectives: to determine the progression of overweight prevalence in Cuban preschoolers and its geographic distribution throughout the country. Methods: data were collected from the sentinel sites for maternal and child nutritional surveillance. The selection of sentinel sites was based on expert criteria and they were placed in the highest and the lowest low birthweight index areas in each province. Several pieces of information about age, sex, place of residence, occupation category of the mother, weight and height were obtained. The nutritional assessment followed the WHO guidelines which consider every child with a weight for height or a body mass index for age exceeding + 2 typical deviations from the reference mean as overweighed child. The agreement between the prevalence of overweight and that of obesity were evaluated in children by using Cuban and WHO standards. The results achieved and the differences found in both periods were discussed. The periods of 2002 and 2011 were compared. Results: prevalence of overweight plus obesity in the children evaluated in 2002 was 14.7 % whereas in 2011 was 17.4 %. Increased prevalence was observed in 2011 in males; it was not associated to the occupational category of the mother; no significant differences were found when evaluating overweight and obesity according to the body mass index for age and weight for height Z-scores. Conclusions: overweight shows high rates in under five-years old children in Cuba, with increasing trends. This makes it necessary to take measures aimed at dietary and behavioral changes associated to physical activities, in order to prevent it since the early childhood and to reduce the onset of first complications.

Pita M.T.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene | Martinez M.V.L.,Institute Nutricion E Higiene Of Los Alimentos
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiologia | Year: 2014

A brief commentary is presented about the work done by the Health Registry in the year 2013, with the purpose of informing those interested in the topic about the achievements, weaknesses and work projections set by this team of specialists for the coming years. © 2014, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All right reserved.

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