Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC

San Juan de Moró, Spain

Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC

San Juan de Moró, Spain
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Garcia-Calero E.,Free University of Berlin | Garcia-Calero E.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Scharff C.,Free University of Berlin
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2013

A sexually dimorphic network of brain regions controls learning and production of song in zebra finches. How this specialized song system evolved is unknown. To start addressing this question, we focused on developmental differences between the sexes, using the expression of the calcium-binding protein calbindin (CB) during embryonic to adult stages to map out the early development of Area X, a male-specific striatal structure. We related this pattern to the expression of three transcription factors, Pax6 and Islet1 to delineate the striatal radial domains, and Nkx2.1 as a marker for cells of pallidal origin. An incipient Area X-CB+ domain became discernable at embryonic day 13 in the Islet1-ventral striatal field. This region contained many Nkx2.1-expressing cells with a morphology characteristic of migrating cells. Eight days after hatching (PHD) CB staining clearly delineated Area X. Another CB+ structure formed around PHD5 at the subpallial/pallial boundary. We call it the CB+striatal capsule (CB-StC) and discuss its relation with the previously described striatal capsule in vertebrates. The CB cell population in both Area X and CB-StC, but not in the surrounding striatum, colocalized with the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) marker, D1-receptor associated signaling protein dopamine-and-cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, DARPP32. In females, CB-positive cells were also present in the rostral striatum but did not coalesce into an Area X-like structure. We discuss possible reasons for CB expression in MSNs in songbirds and mammals, but not described in chicken striatum. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Thompson C.L.,Allen Institute for Brain Science | Ng L.,Allen Institute for Brain Science | Menon V.,Allen Institute for Brain Science | Martinez S.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | And 32 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2014

To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, we generated insitu hybridization data for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at seven developmental stages for ~2,100 genes, which were processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, seven reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore coexpression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas. http://developingmouse.brain-map.org. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Garcia-Calero E.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Garcia-Calero E.,University of Murcia | Martinez S.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Martinez S.,Institute Salud Carlos III
Brain, Behavior and Evolution | Year: 2016

Different bird orders show diversity in neural capabilities supported by variations in brain morphology. The parahippocampal domain in the medial pallium, together with the hippocampus proper, plays an important role in memory skills. In the present work, we analyze the expression pattern of the FoxP1 protein in the parahippocampal area of four different bird species: the nonvocal learner birds quail and chicken (Galliformes) and two vocal learner birds, i.e. the zebra finch (Passeriformes) and the budgerigar (Psittaciformes), at different developmental and adult stages. We also analyze the expression of the calbindin protein in quails and zebra finches. We observed differences in the FoxP1 parahippocampal layer among bird species. In quails, chickens, and budgerigar, FoxP1 cells were located in the outer layers of the lateral and caudolateral parahippocampal sectors. In contrast, FoxP1 immunoreactive cells appeared in the inner layer of the same sectors in the zebra finch parahippocampal domain. These differences suggest two possibilities: either the FoxP1-positive cells described in quails, chickens, and budgerigars are a different population than the one described in the zebra finch, or there are changes in the pattern of radial migration in the parahippocampal area among birds. In the present study, we show that FoxP1 expression is more similar between quails, chickens, and budgerigars than between budgerigars and zebra finches in the parahippocampal area. This result contrasts with previous data in other telencephalic structures, like the calbindin-positive projection neurons described in the striatum of budgerigars and zebra finches but not in quails and chickens. All of these data point to diversity in the evolution of different morphological characters and, therefore, a mosaic model for telencephalic evolution in birds. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Pombero A.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Bueno C.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Saglietti L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Rodenas M.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | And 3 more authors.
Development | Year: 2011

The majority of the cortical cholinergic innervation implicated in attention and memory originates in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band nucleus of the basal prosencephalon. Functional alterations in this system give rise to neuropsychiatric disorders as well as to the cognitive alterations described in Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases. Despite the functional importance of these basal forebrain cholinergic neurons very little is known about their origin and development. Previous studies suggest that they originate in the medial ganglionic eminence of the telencephalic subpallium; however, our results identified Tbr1-expressing, reelin-positive neurons migrating from the ventral pallium to the subpallium that differentiate into cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain nuclei projecting to the cortex. Experiments with Tbr1 knockout mice, which lack ventropallial structures, confirmed the pallial origin of cholinergic neurons in Meynert and horizontal diagonal band nuclei. Also, we demonstrate that Fgf8 signaling in the telencephalic midline attracts these neurons from the pallium to follow a tangential migratory route towards the basal forebrain. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


PubMed | University of California at San Francisco, Allen Institute for Brain Science, University of Murcia, Instituto Of Neurociencias Umh Csic and Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuron | Year: 2014

To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, we generated in situ hybridization data for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at seven developmental stages for 2,100 genes, which were processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, seven reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore coexpression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas (http://developingmouse.brain-map.org).


Navarro-Garberi M.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Bueno C.,University of Murcia | Martinez S.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Martinez S.,University of Murcia
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2015

The diencephalon is a complex brain area that derives from the caudal region of the prosencephalon. This structure is divided into four longitudinal neuroepithelial zones: roof, alar, basal and floor plates, which constitute its dorso-ventral (DV) columnar domains. Morphogenetic differences between alar and basal plates in the prosencephalon and mesencephalon contribute to the characteristic expansion of alar plate derivatives in the brain and the formation of the cephalic flexure. Although differential histogenesis among DV regions seems to be relevant in understanding structural and functional complexity of the brain, most of our knowledge about DV regionalization comes from the spinal cord development. Therefore, it seems of interest to study the molecular mechanisms that govern DV patterning in the diencephalon, the brain region where strong differences in size and complexity between alar and basal derivatives are evident in all vertebrates. Different morphogenetic signals, which induce specific progenitors fate to the neighboring epithelium, are involved in the spinal cord DV patterning. To study if Wnt1, one of these signaling molecules, has a role for the establishment of the diencephalic longitudinal domains, we carried out gain- and loss-of-function experiments, using mice and chick embryos. Our results demonstrated functional differences in the molecular mechanisms downstream of Wnt1 function in the diencephalon, in relation to the spinal cord. We further demonstrated that Bmp4 signal induces Wnt1 expression in the diencephalon, unraveling a new molecular regulatory code downstream of primary dorsalizing signals to control ventral regionalization in the diencephalon. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | University of Murcia and Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brain structure & function | Year: 2016

The diencephalon is a complex brain area that derives from the caudal region of the prosencephalon. This structure is divided into four longitudinal neuroepithelial zones: roof, alar, basal and floor plates, which constitute its dorso-ventral (DV) columnar domains. Morphogenetic differences between alar and basal plates in the prosencephalon and mesencephalon contribute to the characteristic expansion of alar plate derivatives in the brain and the formation of the cephalic flexure. Although differential histogenesis among DV regions seems to be relevant in understanding structural and functional complexity of the brain, most of our knowledge about DV regionalization comes from the spinal cord development. Therefore, it seems of interest to study the molecular mechanisms that govern DV patterning in the diencephalon, the brain region where strong differences in size and complexity between alar and basal derivatives are evident in all vertebrates. Different morphogenetic signals, which induce specific progenitors fate to the neighboring epithelium, are involved in the spinal cord DV patterning. To study if Wnt1, one of these signaling molecules, has a role for the establishment of the diencephalic longitudinal domains, we carried out gain- and loss-of-function experiments, using mice and chick embryos. Our results demonstrated functional differences in the molecular mechanisms downstream of Wnt1 function in the diencephalon, in relation to the spinal cord. We further demonstrated that Bmp4 signal induces Wnt1 expression in the diencephalon, unraveling a new molecular regulatory code downstream of primary dorsalizing signals to control ventral regionalization in the diencephalon.


Garcia-Calero E.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Botella-Lopez A.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Bahamonde O.,Institute Neurociencias UMH CSIC | Bahamonde O.,Fundacion Investigacion Clinico Of Valencia Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Incliva | And 3 more authors.
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2016

In the mammalian telencephalon, part of the progenitor cells transition from multipolar to bipolar morphology as they invade the mantle zone. This associates with changing patterns of radial migration. However, the molecules implicated in these morphology transitions are not well known. In the present work, we analyzed the function of FoxP2 protein in this process during telencephalic development in vertebrates. We analyzed the expression of FoxP2 protein and its relation with cell morphology and migratory patterns in mouse and chicken developing striatum. We observed FoxP2 protein expressed in a gradient from the subventricular zone to the mantle layer in mice embryos. In the FoxP2 low domain cells showed multipolar migration. In the striatal mantle layer where FoxP2 protein expression is higher, cells showed locomoting migration and bipolar morphology. In contrast, FoxP2 showed a high and homogenous expression pattern in chicken striatum, thus bipolar morphology predominated. Elevation of FoxP2 in the striatal subventricular zone by in utero electroporation promoted bipolar morphology and impaired multipolar radial migration. In mouse cerebral cortex we obtained similar results. FoxP2 promotes transition from multipolar to bipolar morphology by means of gradiental expression in mouse striatum and cortex. Together these results indicate a role of FoxP2 differential expression in cell morphology control of the vertebrate telencephalon. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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