Institute Necker Enfants Malades

Paris, France

Institute Necker Enfants Malades

Paris, France
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Barilari M.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | Barilari M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Barilari M.,University of Paris Descartes | Bonfils G.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | And 15 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2017

The inactivation of S6 kinases mimics several aspects of caloric restriction, including small body size, increased insulin sensitivity and longevity. However, the impact of S6 kinase activity on cellular senescence remains to be established. Here, we show that the constitutive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) mutations induces a premature senescence programme in fibroblasts that relies on S6 kinases. To determine novel molecular targets linking S6 kinase activation to the control of senescence, we set up a chemical genetic screen, leading to the identification of the nuclear epigenetic factor ZRF1 (also known as DNAJC2, MIDA1, Mpp11). S6 kinases phosphorylate ZRF1 on Ser47 in cultured cells and in mammalian tissues in vivo. Knock-down of ZRF1 or expression of a phosphorylation mutant is sufficient to blunt the S6 kinase-dependent senescence programme. This is traced by a sharp alteration in p16 levels, the cell cycle inhibitor and a master regulator of senescence. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which nutrient sensing pathways impact on cell senescence through the activation of mTORC1-S6 kinases and the phosphorylation of ZRF1. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license

Pizarro-Cerda J.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Pizarro-Cerda J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pizarro-Cerda J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Charbit A.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | And 12 more authors.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2016

Bacterial pathogens display an impressive arsenal of molecular mechanisms that allow survival in diverse host niches. Subversion of plasma membrane and cytoskeletal functions are common themes associated to infection by both extracellular and intracellular pathogens. Moreover, intracellular pathogens modify the structure/stability of their membrane-bound compartments and escape degradation from phagocytic or autophagic pathways. Here, we review the manipulation of host membranes by . Listeria monocytogenes, . Francisella tularensis, . Shigella flexneri and . Yersinia spp. These four bacterial model pathogens exemplify generalized strategies as well as specific features observed during bacterial infection processes. © 2016 The Authors.

Sebti S.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier | Sebti S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sebti S.,Montpellier University | Sebti S.,Institute Regional du Cancer Montpellier | And 42 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2014

We recently reported that BAG6/BAT3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 6) is essential for basal and starvation-induced autophagy in E18.5 bag6-/- mouse embryos and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) through the modulation of the EP300/p300-dependent acetylation of TRP53 and autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. We observed that BAG6 increases TRP53 acetylation during starvation and pro-autophagic TRP53-target gene expression. BAG6 also decreases the EP300 dependent-acetylation of ATG5, ATG7, and LC3-I, posttranslational modifications that inhibit autophagy. In addition, in the absence of BAG6 or when using a mutant of BAG6 exclusively located in the cytoplasm, autophagy is inhibited, ATG7 is hyperacetylated, TRP53 acetylation is abrogated, and EP300 accumulates in the cytoplasm indicating that BAG6 is involved in the regulation of the nuclear localization of EP300. We also reported that the interaction between BAG6 and EP300 occurs in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus. Moreover, during starvation, EP300 is transported to the nucleus in a BAG6-dependent manner. We concluded that BAG6 regulates autophagy by controlling the localization of EP300 and its accessibility to nuclear (TRP53) and cytoplasmic (ATGs) substrates. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Niso-Santano M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Niso-Santano M.,University of Paris Descartes | Niso-Santano M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pedro J.M.B.-S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 21 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2015

The induction of autophagy usually requires the activation of PIK3C3/ VPS34 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3) within a multiprotein complex that contains BECN1 (Beclin 1, autophagy related). PIK3C3 catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). PtdIns3P associates with growing phagophores, which recruit components of the autophagic machinery, including the lipidated form of MAP1LC3B/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 b). Depletion of BECN1, PIK3C3 or some of their interactors suppresses the formation of MAP1LC3B+ phagophores or autophagosomes elicited by most physiological stimuli, including saturated fatty acids. We observed that cis-unsaturated fatty acids stimulate the generation of cytosolic puncta containing lipidated MAP1LC3B as well as the autophagic turnover of long-lived proteins in the absence of PtdIns3P accumulation. In line with this notion, cis-unsaturated fatty acids require neither BECN1 nor PIK3C3 to stimulate the autophagic flux. Such a BECN1-independent autophagic response is phylogenetically conserved, manifesting in yeast, nematodes, mice and human cells. Importantly, MAP1LC3B+ puncta elicited by cisunsaturated fatty acids colocalize with Golgi apparatus markers. Moreover, the structural and functional collapse of the Golgi apparatus induced by brefeldin A inhibits cis-unsaturated fatty acid-triggered autophagy. It is tempting to speculate that the well-established healthpromoting effects of cis-unsaturated fatty acids are linked to their unusual capacity to stimulate noncanonical, BECN1-independent autophagic responses. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Niso-Santano M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Malik S.A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Malik S.A.,Government of Pakistan | Pietrocola F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 42 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2015

To obtain mechanistic insights into the cross talk between lipolysis and autophagy, two key metabolic responses to starvation, we screened the autophagy-inducing potential of a panel of fatty acids in human cancer cells. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitate and oleate, respectively, triggered autophagy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms differed. Oleate, but not palmitate, stimulated an autophagic response that required an intact Golgi apparatus. Conversely, autophagy triggered by palmitate, but not oleate, required AMPK, PKR and JNK1 and involved the activation of the BECN1/PIK3C3 lipid kinase complex. Accordingly, the downregulation of BECN1 and PIK3C3 abolished palmitate-induced, but not oleate-induced, autophagy in human cancer cells. Moreover, Becn1+/- mice as well as yeast cells and nematodes lacking the ortholog of human BECN1 mounted an autophagic response to oleate, but not palmitate. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids induce a non-canonical, phylogenetically conserved, autophagic response that in mammalian cells relies on the Golgi apparatus. © 2015 The Authors.

Rigard M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rigard M.,University of Lyon | Rigard M.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Broms J.E.,Umeå University | And 25 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2016

The virulence of Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, relies on an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by a genomic island termed the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI). While the importance of the FPI in F. tularensis virulence is clearly established, the precise role of most of the FPI-encoded proteins remains to be deciphered. In this study, using highly virulent F. tularensis strains and the closely related species F. novicida, IglG was characterized as a protein featuring a unique α-helical N-terminal extension and a domain of unknown function (DUF4280), present in more than 250 bacterial species. Three dimensional modeling of IglG and of the DUF4280 consensus protein sequence indicates that these proteins adopt a PAAR-like fold, suggesting they could cap the T6SS in a similar way as the recently described PAAR proteins. The newly identified PAAR-like motif is characterized by four conserved cysteine residues, also present in IglG, which may bind a metal atom. We demonstrate that IglG binds metal ions and that each individual cysteine is required for T6SS-dependent secretion of IglG and of the Hcp homologue, IglC and for the F. novicida intracellular life cycle. In contrast, the Francisella-specific N-terminal α-helical extension is not required for IglG secretion, but is critical for F. novicida virulence and for the interaction of IglG with another FPI-encoded protein, IglF. Altogether, our data suggest that IglG is a PAAR-like protein acting as a bi-modal protein that may connect the tip of the Francisella T6SS with a putative T6SS effector, IglF. © 2016 Rigard et al.

Korniotis S.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | Korniotis S.,University of Paris Descartes | Gras C.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | Gras C.,University of Paris Descartes | And 16 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

The influence of signals perceived by immature B cells during their development in bone marrow on their subsequent functions as mature cells are poorly defined. Here, we show that bone marrow cells transiently stimulated in vivo or in vitro through the Toll-like receptor 9 generate proB cells (CpG-proBs) that interrupt experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when transferred at the onset of clinical symptoms. Protection requires differentiation of CpG-proBs into mature B cells that home to reactive lymph nodes, where they trap T cells by releasing the CCR7 ligand, CCL19, and to inflamed central nervous system, where they locally limit immunopathogenesis through interleukin-10 production, thereby cooperatively inhibiting ongoing EAE. These data demonstrate that a transient inflammation at the environment, where proB cells develop, is sufficient to confer regulatory functions onto their mature B-cell progeny. In addition, these properties of CpG-proBs open interesting perspectives for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases.

Coureuil M.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | Coureuil M.,University of Paris Descartes | Coureuil M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Coureuil M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 12 more authors.
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Neisseria meningitidis is an extracellular pathogen, which, once in the bloodstream, has the ability to form microcolonies on the apical surface of endothelia. Pathogen interaction with microvessels is mediated by bacterial type IV pili and two receptors on endothelial cells: CD147 and the β2-adrenoceptor. CD147 facilitates the adhesion of diplococci to the endothelium, whereas the β2-adrenoceptor facilitates cell signaling, and crossing of the blood-brain barrier. In this review, we discuss how meningococcal interaction with endothelial cells is responsible for the specific clinical features of invasive meningococcal infection such as meningitis, and a peripheral thrombotic/vascular leakage syndrome possibly leading to purpura fulminans. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liang N.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | Liang N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Liang N.,University of Paris Descartes | Zhang C.,Institute Necker Enfants Malades | And 35 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2014

Genetic studies have shown that the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1-TSC2-mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and the Hippo-Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) pathways are master regulators of organ size, which are often involved in tumorigenesis. The crosstalk between these signal transduction pathways in coordinating environmental cues, such as nutritional status and mechanical constraints, is crucial for tissue growth. Whether and how mTOR regulates YAP remains elusive. Here we describe a novel mouse model of TSC which develops renal mesenchymal lesions recapitulating human perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) from patients with TSC. We identify that YAP is up-regulated by mTOR in mouse and human PEComas. YAP inhibition blunts abnormal proliferation and induces apoptosis of TSC1-TSC2-deficient cells, both in culture and in mosaic Tsc1 mutant mice. We further delineate that YAP accumulation in TSC1/TSC2-deficient cells is due to impaired degradation of the protein by the autophagosome/lysosome system. Thus, the regulation of YAP by mTOR and autophagy is a novel mechanism of growth control, matching YAP activity with nutrient availability under growth-permissive conditions. YAP may serve as a potential therapeutic target for TSC and other diseases with dysregulated mTOR activity. © 2014 Liang et al.

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