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Lemieux A.J.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Bergeron S.,University of Montréal | Steben M.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Lambert B.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal And Hopital St Luc
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction: Entry dyspareunia is a sexual health concern which affects about 21% of women in the general population. Characterized by pain provoked during vaginal penetration, introital dyspareunia has been shown by controlled studies to have a negative impact on the psychological well-being, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life of afflicted women. Many cognitive and affective variables may influence the experience of pain and associated psychosexual problems. However, the role of the partner's cognitive responses has been studied very little. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between partners' catastrophizing and their perceptions of women's self-efficacy at managing pain on one side and women's pain intensity, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction on the other. Methods: One hundred seventy-nine heterosexual couples (mean age for women=31, SD=10.0; mean age for men=33, SD=10.6) in which the woman suffered from entry dyspareunia participated in the study. Both partners completed quantitative measures. Women completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale. Men completed the significant-other versions of these measures. Main Outcome Measures: Dependent measures were women's responses to (i) the Pain Numeric Visual Analog Scale; (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction scale. Results: Controlled for women's pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy, results indicate that higher levels of partner-perceived self-efficacy and lower levels of partner catastrophizing are associated with decreased pain intensity in women with entry dyspareunia, although only partner catastrophizing contributed unique variance. Partner-perceived self-efficacy and catastrophizing were not significantly associated with sexual function or satisfaction in women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that partners' cognitive responses may influence the experience of entry dyspareunia for women, pointing toward the importance of considering the partner when treating this sexual health problem. Lemieux AJ, Bergeron S, Steben M, and Lambert B. Do romantic partners' responses to entry dyspareunia affect women's experience of pain? The roles of catastrophizing and self-efficacy. J Sex Med 2013;10:2274-2284. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Levesque J.-F.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Harris M.F.,University of New South Wales | Russell G.,Monash University
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2013

Background: Access is central to the performance of health care systems around the world. However, access to health care remains a complex notion as exemplified in the variety of interpretations of the concept across authors. The aim of this paper is to suggest a conceptualisation of access to health care describing broad dimensions and determinants that integrate demand and supply-side-factors and enabling the operationalisation of access to health care all along the process of obtaining care and benefiting from the services. Methods. A synthesis of the published literature on the conceptualisation of access has been performed. The most cited frameworks served as a basis to develop a revised conceptual framework. Results: Here, we view access as the opportunity to identify healthcare needs, to seek healthcare services, to reach, to obtain or use health care services, and to actually have a need for services fulfilled. We conceptualise five dimensions of accessibility: 1) Approachability; 2) Acceptability; 3) Availability and accommodation; 4) Affordability; 5) Appropriateness. In this framework, five corresponding abilities of populations interact with the dimensions of accessibility to generate access. Five corollary dimensions of abilities include: 1) Ability to perceive; 2) Ability to seek; 3) Ability to reach; 4) Ability to pay; and 5) Ability to engage. Conclusions: This paper explains the comprehensiveness and dynamic nature of this conceptualisation of access to care and identifies relevant determinants that can have an impact on access from a multilevel perspective where factors related to health systems, institutions, organisations and providers are considered with factors at the individual, household, community, and population levels. © 2013 Levesque et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pai N.P.,McGill University | Balram B.,McGill University | Shivkumar S.,McGill University | Martinez-Cajas J.L.,Queen's University | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: The focus on prevention strategies aimed at curbing the HIV epidemic is growing, and therefore screening for HIV has again taken centre stage. Our aim was to establish whether a convenient, non-invasive, HIV test that uses oral fluid was accurate by comparison with the same test with blood-based specimens. Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid HIV-antibody-based point-of-care test (Oraquick advance rapid HIV-1/2, OraSure Technologies Inc, PA, USA) when used with oral versus blood-based specimens in adults. We searched five databases of published work and databases of five key HIV conferences. Studies we deemed eligible were those focused on adults at risk of HIV; we excluded studies in children, in co-infected populations, with self-reported inferior reference standards, and with incomplete reporting of key data items. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of testing with oral and blood-based specimens with bivariate regression analysis. We computed positive predictive values (PPVs) in high-prevalence and low-prevalence settings with Bayesian methods. Findings: In a direct head-to-head comparison of studies, we identified a pooled sensitivity about 2% lower in oral (98·03%, 95% CI 95·85-99·08) than in blood-based specimens (99·68%, 97·31-99·96), but similar specificity (oral 99·74%, 99·47-99·88; blood 99·91%, 99·84-99·95). Negative likelihood ratios were small and similar (oral 0·019, 0.009-0·040; blood 0·003, 0·001-0·034), but positive likelihood ratios differed (oral 383·37, 183·87-799·31; blood 1105·16, 633·14-2004·37). Although in high-prevalence settings PPVs were similar (oral 98·65%, 95% credible interval 85·71-99·94; blood 98·50, 93·10-99·79), in low-prevalence settings PPVs were lower for oral (88·55%, 77·31-95·87) than blood (97·65%, 95·48-99·09) specimens. Interpretation: Although Oraquick had a high PPV in high-prevelence settings in oral specimens, the slightly lower sensitivity and PPV in low-prevalence settings in oral specimens should be carefully reviewed when planning worldwide expanded initiatives with this popular test. Funding: Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR KRS 102067). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Park A.L.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Fuhrer R.,McGill University | Quesnel-Vallee A.,McGill University
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background: Early-life low socioeconomic position (SEP) increases the risk of adult major depression; however, associations vary according to the measure of SEP and adults' life stage. Although maternal education often predicts offspring health better than other SEP indicators, including paternal education, it is unclear how maternal and paternal education differentially influence early-adult depression, and how early-life and adult risk factors may mediate the association. Methods: Longitudinal data come from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 1994/1995 to 2006/2007, restricted to a sample (N = 1,267) that was aged 12-24 years in 1994/1995. Past-year major depressive episode (MDE) was assessed in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form for Major Depression. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between both maternal and paternal education and MDE, adjusting for respondent's demographics, early-life adversities, adult SEP, psychosocial factors, and physical health. Results: Offsprings of mothers with less than secondary school education had higher odds of MDE (adjusted OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.25-3.32) relative to those whose mothers had more education. Paternal education was not associated with MDE. Although adult income, student status, psychosocial stress, and several early-life adversities remained associated with MDE in the fully adjusted model, the estimate for maternal education was not reduced. Conclusions: Maternal education was associated with MDE in early adulthood, independent of paternal education and other early-life and early-adult risk factors. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Panic M.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Ford J.D.,McGill University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

Climate change is likely to have significant implications for human health, particularly through alterations of the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of infectious diseases. In the context of these risks, governments in high income nations have begun developing strategies to reduce potential climate change impacts and increase health system resilience (i.e., adaptation). In this paper, we review and evaluate national-level adaptation planning in relation to infectious disease risks in 14 OECD countries with respect to "best practices" for adaptation identified in peer-reviewed literature. We find a number of limitations to current planning, including negligible consideration of the needs of vulnerable population groups, limited emphasis on local risks, and inadequate attention to implementation logistics, such as available funding and timelines for evaluation. The nature of planning documents varies widely between nations, four of which currently lack adaptation plans. In those countries where planning documents were available, adaptations were mainstreamed into existing public health programs, and prioritized a sectoral, rather than multidisciplinary, approach. The findings are consistent with other scholarship examining adaptation planning indicating an ad hoc and fragmented process, and support the need for enhanced attention to adaptation to infectious disease risks in public health policy at a national level. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Gilca R.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Fortin E.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Frenette C.,McGill University | Longtin Y.,University of Québec | Gourdeau M.,CHA Hopital de lEnfant Jesus
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Seasonal variations in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), with a higher incidence occurring during winter months, have been reported. Although winter epidemics of respiratory viruses may be temporally associated with an increase in CDAD morbidity, we hypothesized that this association is mainly due to increased antibiotic use for respiratory infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the two most frequent respiratory viruses (influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus [RSV]) and antibiotics prescribed for respiratory infections (fluoroquinolones and macrolides) on the CDAD incidence in hospitals in the province of Québec, Canada. A multivariable Box-Jenkins transfer function model was built to relate monthly CDAD incidence to the monthly percentage of positive tests for influenza virus and RSV and monthly fluoroquinolone and macrolide prescriptions over a 4-year period (January 2005 to December 2008). Analysis showed that temporal variations in CDAD incidence followed temporal variations for influenza virus (P = 0.043), RSV (P = 0.004), and macrolide prescription (P = 0.05) time series with an average delay of 1 month and fluoroquinolone prescription time series with an average delay of 2 months (P = 0.01). We conclude that influenza virus and RSV circulation is independently associated with CDAD incidence after controlling for fluoroquinolone and macrolide use. This association was observed at an aggregated level and may be indicative of other phenomena occurring during wintertime. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Naimi A.I.,McGill University | Auger N.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives. We assess whether population-wide folic acid fortification policies were followed by a reduction of preterm and early-term birth rates in Québec among women with short and optimal interpregnancy intervals. Methods. We extracted birth certificate data for 1.3 million births between 1981 and 2010 to compute age-adjusted preterm and early-term birth rates stratified by short and optimal interpregnancy intervals. We used Joinpoint regression to detect changes in the preterm and early term birth rates and assess whether these changes coincide with the implementation of population-wide folic acid fortification. Results. A change in the pretermbirth rate occurred in 2000 among women with short (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1994, 2005) and optimal (95% CI = 1995, 2008) interpregnancy intervals. Changes in early term birth rates did not coincide with the implementation of folic acid fortification. Conclusions. Our results do not indicate a link between folic acid fortification and early term birth but suggest an improvement in preterm birth rates after implementation of a nationwide folic acid fortification program. © 2015, American Public Health Association Inc. All rights reserved.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to conduct a gender-based analysis of associations between certain psychosocial work demands and certain mental health problems in Québec. METHODS: The study comprised 2,877 workers, with a response rate of 78%. Data collection was conducted by means of computer-assisted interviews, mainly in person. The mental health problems retained in the model were: psychological distress, a major episode of depression, and a positive score on the global depression index. The psychosocial work demands measured were: level of decision latitude, of psychological job demands and of social support. A set of job and personal characteristics were also measured. FINDINGS: In all, 41% of Québec workers have a low level of decision authority and 46% experience low skill discretion at work. Moreover, 45% reported having little social support and 40% high psychological job demands. The findings show that 25% of the population studied had experienced a level of psychological distress during the month preceding the survey, and during the previous 12 months, 4% had had a major episode of depression and 6.4% a score on the global depression index indicating depression. These indicators seemed more marked among women compared to men. The findings of the multivariate analysis showed that among women, low skill discretion surprisingly appeared to be a protective factor against a major episode of depression. CONCLUSION: The reasons for these differences between the sexes are discussed and seem related to such factors as more unfavourable working conditions for women, as well as double workloads (home and work), and a relationship to work that differs from that of men.

Blouin K.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Recent analyses have shown an emerging positive association between sex work and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the SurvUDI network. METHODS: Participants who had injected in the past 6 months were recruited across the Province of Quebec and in the city of Ottawa, mainly in harm reduction programs. They completed a questionnaire and provided gingival exudate for HIV antibody testing. The associations with HIV seroconversion were tested with a Cox proportional hazard model using time-dependent covariables including the main variable of interest, sexual activity (sex work; no sex work; sexually inactive). The final model included significant variables and confounders of the associations with sexual activity. RESULTS: Seventy-two HIV seroconversions were observed during 5239.2 person-years (py) of follow-up (incidence rates: total = 1.4/100 py; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–1.7; sex work = 2.5/100 py; 95% CI, 1.5–3.6; no sex work = 0.8/100 py; 95% CI, 0.5–1.2; sexually inactive = 1.8/100 py; 95% CI, 1.1–2.5). In the final multivariate model, HIV incidence was significantly associated with sexual activity (sex work: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.13–4.25; sexually inactive: AHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92–2.88), and injection with a needle/syringe used by someone else (AHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.73–4.66). CONCLUSIONS: Sex work is independently associated with HIV incidence among PWIDs. At the other end of the spectrum of sexual activity, sexually inactive PWIDs have a higher HIV incidence rate, likely due to more profound dependence leading to increased vulnerabilities, which may include mental illness, poverty, and social exclusion. Further studies are needed to understand whether the association between sex work and HIV is related to sexual transmission or other vulnerability factors. © Copyright 2016 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association

Pampalon R.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Hamel D.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Gamache P.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec
Health and Place | Year: 2010

Social health inequalities are smaller in rural than urban areas because, some argue, people's social conditions are estimated at a small-area level, hiding variability at the individual or household level. This paper compares inequalities in survival according to an individual and area-based version of a deprivation index among a large sample of Canadians living in various urban and rural settings. Results show that survival inequalities in small towns and rural areas are lower than elsewhere when an area-based index is used, except in the remote hinterland, but of equal magnitude when the individual version of this index is considered. Crown Copyright © 2009.

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