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Ahmedou Salem M.S.O.,University of Nouakchott | Ahmedou Salem M.S.O.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ndiaye M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ouldabdallahi M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Mauritania. The present study examined and compared the genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in Mauritania. Methods. Plasmodium falciparum isolates blood samples were collected from 113 patients attending health facilities in Nouakchott and Hodh El Gharbi regions. K1, Mad20 and RO33 allelic family of msp-1 gene were determined by nested PCR amplification. Results: K1 family was the predominant allelic type carried alone or in association with Ro33 and Mad20 types (90%; 102/113). Out of the 113 P. falciparum samples, 93(82.3%) harboured more than one parasite genotype. The overall multiplicity of infection was 3.2 genotypes per infection. There was no significant correlation between multiplicity of infection and age of patients. A significant increase of multiplicity of infection was correlated with parasite densities. Conclusions: The polymorphism of P. falciparum populations from Mauritania was high. Infection with multiple P. falciparum clones was observed, as well as a high multiplicity of infection reflecting both the high endemicity level and malaria transmission in Mauritania. © 2014 Ahmedou Salem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Boushab M.B.,Service Of Medecine Interne Du Center Hospitalier Daioun | Savadogo M.,Service des maladies infectieuses au CHU Yalgado Ouedraogo | Sow M.S.,Service des maladies infectieuses au CHU Donka | Fall-Malick F.Z.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Seydi M.,Fann University Hospital Center
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2015

We report three severe cases of hemorrhagic form of Rift Valley Fever which have been observed in the Hospital of Aïoun (two cases) and in the regional hospital of Tidjikdja (one case). The disease manifested itself by an infectious syndrome, an early infectious syndrome (on the second day) with onset of hemorrhagic complications and disorder of consciousness ranging from an agitation to deep coma. The biological examinations showed a severe anemia. Multiple organ failures were also observed. Of the three patients treated one died. Therefore, the management of both suspected and confirmed cases must be initiated as soon as possible in order to control organ damages and prevent fatality. There is no specific treatment. The importance of the epidemiological survey must be emphasized to avoid outbreaks and control any epidemic due to this virus. © 2015, Springer-Verlag France.

Sy I.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Sy I.,Center Suisse Of Recherche Scientifique Csrs | Handschumacher P.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Wyss K.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 4 more authors.
Medecine Tropicale | Year: 2010

Rapid urbanization has created numerous health risks in developing countries, but the exact impact on many diseases in function of living conditions is unclear. For insight into this complex relationship, a study on diarrheal diseases was carried out to obtain knowledge about the distribution of health risks in an urban setting. An epidemiological survey with a combined longitudinal and transverse design was conducted in Rufisque, Senegal, from April 2002 to March 2003 in a sample including households with children less than 5 years old living in four areas presenting different levels of hygiene. Results showed a high overall incidence of diarrhea (6.5 episodes/child/year) but there were major discrepancies between the four study areas in direct relation with level of hygiene. The annual incidence per child was lower in the low-cost housing project (fair hygiene, 3.4 episodes) than in the Castors area (poor hygiene, 6.8 episodes), Diokoul Wague area (very poor hygiene, 7.3 episodes) and Goufe Aldiana area (no hygiene, 8.4 episodes). The study showed only a slight seasonal effect on diarrheal disease in the different areas. However, the differences observed between areas during the cold and hot dry seasons were considerably attenuated in the rainy season. This variability in the incidence rate that underlines the diversity of urban living conditions depends on a variety of risk factors (such as age and number of children) that may interact, although hygiene level remains critical. For issues usually given priority at the national level, multiplying studies aimed at fine analysis of factors underlying disease transmission is useful since this approach can improve understanding of public health policy in city environments characterized by the complex conditions (density and diversity) created by urbanization.

Gebreab S.Z.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Gebreab S.Z.,University of Basel | Vienneau D.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Vienneau D.,University of Basel | And 7 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2015

Land use regression (LUR) modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS). Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines. © S.Z. Gebreab et al., 2015.

Cisse G.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Cisse G.,University of Basel | Traore D.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Touray S.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues | Year: 2016

In Kaédi, a secondary city of Mauritania with approximately 71,000 inhabitants, the analyses of historical climate time series data (1919-2010) and some projections showed a likely occurrence of more frequent heavy rains and higher risks of flooding events in the future. Vulnerability assessments, facilitated through transversal household surveys toward the end of the rainy season that covered the entire city and followed a stratified sampling approach, showed that the community's water supply comprises more than 100 wells, 33% of households report using water from wells for drinking purposes, 12% of households have their own wells in the yard, and 69% of households have latrines in the yard. The analysis also revealed considerable spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability. Considering the risks of cross-contamination of wells water by onsite sanitation facilities during flood events, communities and local governance actors should find appropriate adaptation to climate change strategies for water and health sectors starting with thematic vulnerability maps. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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