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Ahmedou Salem M.S.O.,University of Nouakchott | Ahmedou Salem M.S.O.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ndiaye M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Ouldabdallahi M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Mauritania. The present study examined and compared the genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in Mauritania. Methods. Plasmodium falciparum isolates blood samples were collected from 113 patients attending health facilities in Nouakchott and Hodh El Gharbi regions. K1, Mad20 and RO33 allelic family of msp-1 gene were determined by nested PCR amplification. Results: K1 family was the predominant allelic type carried alone or in association with Ro33 and Mad20 types (90%; 102/113). Out of the 113 P. falciparum samples, 93(82.3%) harboured more than one parasite genotype. The overall multiplicity of infection was 3.2 genotypes per infection. There was no significant correlation between multiplicity of infection and age of patients. A significant increase of multiplicity of infection was correlated with parasite densities. Conclusions: The polymorphism of P. falciparum populations from Mauritania was high. Infection with multiple P. falciparum clones was observed, as well as a high multiplicity of infection reflecting both the high endemicity level and malaria transmission in Mauritania. © 2014 Ahmedou Salem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fall-Malick F.Z.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Bara A.O.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Lam M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Mint Beibacar M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | And 7 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2010

According to the 2008 report on global AIDS epidemic, 33 millions of people are living with HIV/ AIDS. Subsanarian Africa is the most affected part of the world. The first case of AIDS in Mauritania was reported in 1987. The national prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the country is estimated at less than 1%. The HIV serosurveillance among pregnant women started in country in 2001. This work has focused on HIV sentinel surveillance among pregnant women in antenatal clinics, attending health centres in different wilayas (regions) of the country in order to assess evolution of prevalence between 2001 and 2007. An anonymous and non-correlated method is used for this survey. A questionnaire was administered and venous sampling made for eligible women. Analyses were performed with an algorithm based on two screening tests (ELISA) and another test for confirmation (New Lav Blot). Despite some disparities between the sites considered, the results have shown a low prevalence rate (between 0.1 and 1.48). The average prevalence of HIV infection samples collected increased from 0.57% [0.34-0.80] in 2001 to 0.61% [0.40-0.82] in 2007 with 95% confidence interval. Statistical analysis showed no significant changes between 2001 and 2007 at all these sites. HIV1 is the most frequent type with a proportion of 93.5% in 2007. After several years of classic HIV sentinel surveillance, and to better understand disparities between sites, we recommend a second generation sentinel surveillance (behavioural and serological) approach. © 2010 Société de pathologie exotique et Spnnger-Vemg France.


Sy I.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Sy I.,Center Suisse Of Recherche Scientifique Csrs | Handschumacher P.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Wyss K.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 4 more authors.
Medecine Tropicale | Year: 2010

Rapid urbanization has created numerous health risks in developing countries, but the exact impact on many diseases in function of living conditions is unclear. For insight into this complex relationship, a study on diarrheal diseases was carried out to obtain knowledge about the distribution of health risks in an urban setting. An epidemiological survey with a combined longitudinal and transverse design was conducted in Rufisque, Senegal, from April 2002 to March 2003 in a sample including households with children less than 5 years old living in four areas presenting different levels of hygiene. Results showed a high overall incidence of diarrhea (6.5 episodes/child/year) but there were major discrepancies between the four study areas in direct relation with level of hygiene. The annual incidence per child was lower in the low-cost housing project (fair hygiene, 3.4 episodes) than in the Castors area (poor hygiene, 6.8 episodes), Diokoul Wague area (very poor hygiene, 7.3 episodes) and Goufe Aldiana area (no hygiene, 8.4 episodes). The study showed only a slight seasonal effect on diarrheal disease in the different areas. However, the differences observed between areas during the cold and hot dry seasons were considerably attenuated in the rainy season. This variability in the incidence rate that underlines the diversity of urban living conditions depends on a variety of risk factors (such as age and number of children) that may interact, although hygiene level remains critical. For issues usually given priority at the national level, multiplying studies aimed at fine analysis of factors underlying disease transmission is useful since this approach can improve understanding of public health policy in city environments characterized by the complex conditions (density and diversity) created by urbanization.


Traore D.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Traore D.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Traore D.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire | Sy I.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | And 14 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2013

Access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water is a human right. Moreover, access to clean water is of public health relevance, particularly in semi-arid and Sahelian cities due to the risks of water contamination and transmission of water-borne diseases. We conducted a study in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania, to deepen the understanding of diarrhoeal incidence in space and time. We used an integrated geographical approach, combining socio-environmental, microbiological and epidemiological data from various sources, including spatially explicit surveys, laboratory analysis of water samples and reported diarrhoeal episodes. A geospatial technique was applied to determine the environmental and microbiological risk factors that govern diarrhoeal transmission. Statistical and cartographic analyses revealed concentration of unimproved sources of drinking water in the most densely populated areas of the city, coupled with a daily water allocation below the recommended standard of 20 l per person. Bacteriological analysis indicated that 93% of the non-piped water sources supplied at water points were contaminated with 10-80 coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Diarrhoea was the second most important disease reported at health centres, accounting for 12.8% of health care service consultations on average. Diarrhoeal episodes were concentrated in municipalities with the largest number of contaminated water sources. Environmental factors (e.g. lack of improved water sources) and bacteriological aspects (e.g. water contamination with coliform bacteria) are the main drivers explaining the spatio-temporal distribution of diarrhoea. We conclude that integrating environmental, microbiological and epidemiological variables with statistical regression models facilitates risk profiling of diarrhoeal diseases. Modes of water supply and water contamination were the main drivers of diarrhoea in this semi-arid urban context of Nouakchott, and hence require a strategy to improve water quality at the various levels of the supply chain.


Boushab M.B.,Service Of Medecine Interne Du Center Hospitalier Daioun | Savadogo M.,Service des maladies infectieuses au CHU Yalgado Ouedraogo | Sow M.S.,Service des maladies infectieuses au CHU Donka | Fall-Malick F.Z.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Seydi M.,Fann University Hospital Center
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2015

We report three severe cases of hemorrhagic form of Rift Valley Fever which have been observed in the Hospital of Aïoun (two cases) and in the regional hospital of Tidjikdja (one case). The disease manifested itself by an infectious syndrome, an early infectious syndrome (on the second day) with onset of hemorrhagic complications and disorder of consciousness ranging from an agitation to deep coma. The biological examinations showed a severe anemia. Multiple organ failures were also observed. Of the three patients treated one died. Therefore, the management of both suspected and confirmed cases must be initiated as soon as possible in order to control organ damages and prevent fatality. There is no specific treatment. The importance of the epidemiological survey must be emphasized to avoid outbreaks and control any epidemic due to this virus. © 2015, Springer-Verlag France.


Ould El Mamy A.B.,Center National Detude Et Of Recherches Vetrinaires | Baba M.O.,Ministere du Developpement Rural | Barry Y.,Center National Detude Et Of Recherches Vetrinaires | Isselmou K.,Center National Detude Et Of Recherches Vetrinaires | And 15 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

During September?October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.


Ouldabdallahi M.M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Sarr O.,Center Regional Of Formation Et Of Recherches En Genomiques Et Biostatistique | Basco L.K.,Aix - Marseille University | Lebatt S.M.,Ministere de la Sante | And 2 more authors.
Medecine et Sante Tropicales | Year: 2016

Background: Until 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health recommended chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for first- and secondline treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kobeni as first-line treatment. Materials and methods: This study included 55 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections, who were treated with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine and followed up for 28 days. Isolates were genotyped to distinguish between recrudescence and reinfection. Treatment success rates and survival were analysed per protocol to evaluate drug efficacy. Results: After inclusion, 2 patients were excluded for protocol violations, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 50 patients (per protocol population), 43 (86%) had adequate clinical and parasitological responses. Of the 7 patients with treatment failure, 5 (10%) were early failures, while 2 (4%) had initially responded and had late clinical failure on day 7, associated with recrudescence. With the exception of one adult weighing 91 kg, all treatment failures occurred in children aged from 7 to 12 years. Conclusions: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy was moderately effective but insufficiently reliable in view of the relatively high rate of early treatment failure. The high prevalence of chloroquine resistance found in earlier studies and the results of the present study on sulfadoxinepyrimethamine justify the change in national policy and systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for first-line treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Mauritania. © 2016 John Libbey Eurotext.


PubMed | Aix - Marseille University, Center Regional Of Formation Et Of Recherches En Genomiques Et Biostatistique, Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique, Programme national de lutte contre le paludisme and Cheikh Anta Diop University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medecine et sante tropicales | Year: 2016

Until 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health recommended chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for first- and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kobeni as first-line treatment.This study included 55 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections, who were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and followed up for 28 days. Isolates were genotyped to distinguish between recrudescence and reinfection. Treatment success rates and survival were analysed per protocol to evaluate drug efficacy.After inclusion, 2 patients were excluded for protocol violations, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 50 patients (per protocol population), 43 (86%) had adequate clinical and parasitological responses. Of the 7 patients with treatment failure, 5 (10%) were early failures, while 2 (4%) had initially responded and had late clinical failure on day 7, associated with recrudescence. With the exception of one adult weighing 91kg, all treatment failures occurred in children aged from 7 to 12 years.Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy was moderately effective but insufficiently reliable in view of the relatively high rate of early treatment failure. The high prevalence of chloroquine resistance found in earlier studies and the results of the present study on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine justify the change in national policy and systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for first-line treatment of P.falciparum malaria in Mauritania.


Ba K.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Keita M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Fall-Malick F.Z.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | Mint Beibakar M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2015

In Mauritania, epidemiological data estimate national HIV prevalence to less than 1%. Our study is the first joint survey on HIV/AIDS conducted among prisoners in Mauritania. It is a cross-sectional survey with anonymity and informed consent. The study covered a sample of 296 prisoners enrolled in a population of 706 prisoners held in Nouakchott. The sex ratio was 14.6. The refusal rate of blood sample was 4.7%. HIV prevalence in the sample was 3.9%. 53.37% of prisoners knew the concept of seropositivity but only 7.4% had a perfect knowledge of the ways of HIV transmission untainted by false beliefs. The results showed that 99% of prisoners knew that the condom is a means of protection against HIV infection, but they also showed many false beliefs about protection against HIV in the majority of prisoners. Indeed, 98.49% of respondents said protect themselves by avoiding sex with strangers and 94.97% of them thought that sex with girls or virgins are a protection against HIV. Nearly one quarter of the prisoners did not have a good perception of risk of contracting HIV in prison although homosexual relations between prisoners have been reported. This study showed that prisoners in Mauritania are a vulnerable group to HIV because the prevalence of HIV in this group was higher than the national prevalence and this sub-population was unfamiliar with the disease and adopt risk behaviors. © 2015, Springer-Verlag France.


PubMed | Institute National Of Recherches En Sante Publique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) | Year: 2011

A study was performed to appreciate the importance of malaria in the low valley of the Senegal River North Bank in Mauritania. The malaria incidence was assessed among patients visiting the regional hospital of Rosso (Trarza region) for a presumptive malaria, a diagnosis assigned by the clinicians based on fever and other suggestive symptoms of malaria. The malaria prevalence rate was also measured in schoolchildren. A total of 1431 febrile outpatients were sampled for thick and thin blood films, between December 2004 and March 2005, August and November 2005, and April and July 2006. The average malaria prevalence rate was 2.5% (36/1431). It varied from 0.7% (4/576) for the period from December 2004 to March 2005 to 3.8% (18/475) from August to November 2005 and 2.1% (8/380) from April to July 2006. Of the 1040 school children of 6 to 14 years of age, the average malaria parasite prevalence rate was 0.9% (9/1040). It was 0.4% (1/224), 1.7% (7/413) and 0.2% (1/402), Respectively, in February 2004 (cold and dry season), October 2005 (rainy season) and June 2006 (hot and dry season). These very low levels of malaria endemicity and incidence are comparable with those recorded in the same area on the (South) bank of the river in Senegal. In this context of unstable malaria, characterized by the absence or a low level of natural immunity of the population, an effective monitoring is essential for an early detection and a damming up of the malaria epidemic blazes that likely occur.

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