Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap

Saint-André-de-Sangonis, France

Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap

Saint-André-de-Sangonis, France
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Corbineau R.,Aix - Marseille University | Ruas M.-P.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Barbier-Pain D.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap | Barbier-Pain D.,University of Southern Brittany | And 4 more authors.
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2017

Occasionally mentioned in written sources since the Early Middle Ages, embalming with evisceration spreads considerably and becomes quite usual practice for aristocratic elites from the late 13th century to the early 19th century. Apothecaries prepare aromatic powders including many plant organs and exudates supposed to preserve the body. Numerous encyclopaedias and treatises of medicine list these ingredients and show that the recipes are very diverse. Moreover, several studies of embalmed bodies have demonstrated the potential of archaeobotanical analyses coupling pollen and macro-remains for identifying this material. This paper aims to compile a synthesis of written and archaeological sources from France and Italy, and to assess the relevance of an interdisciplinary approach for a better understanding of this aristocratic burial practice. It demonstrates that both types of sources and approaches are strongly complementary and highlights their inherent advantages and methodological limitations. In order to understand which criteria were determinant in the composition of the embalming powders, their medicinal, odoriferous and symbolic properties are discussed. Finally, this work proposes some methodological perspectives and triggers new research avenues on the history of pharmacy in Late Medieval and modern Europe. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Dubois C.,University of Mons | Quinif Y.,University of Mons | Baele J.-M.,University of Mons | Barriquand L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 14 more authors.
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2014

This paper presents an extensive review of the process of ghost-rock karstification and highlights its role in the formation of cave systems. The process integrates chemical weathering and mechanical erosion and extends a number of existing theories pertaining to continental landscape development. It is a two stage process that differs in many respects from the traditional single-stage process of karstification by total removal. The first stage is characterised by chemical dissolution and removal of the soluble species. It requires low hydrodynamic energy and creates a ghost-rock feature filled with residual alterite. The second stage is characterised by mechanical erosion of the undissolved particles. It requires high hydrodynamic energy and it is only then that open galleries are created. The transition from the first stage to the second is driven by the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system. The process is illustrated by detailed field observations and the results of the laboratory analyses of samples taken from the karstotype area around Soignies in southern Belgium. Thereafter, a series of case studies provide a synthesis of field observations and laboratory analyses from across western Europe. These studies come from geologically distinct parts of Belgium, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. The process of ghost-rock karstification challenges a number of axioms associated with the process of karstification by total removal. On the basis of the evidence presented it is argued that it is no longer acceptable to use karst morphologies as a basis with which to infer specific karstogenetic processes and it is no longer necessary for a karst system to relate to base level as ghost-rock karstification proceeds along transmissive pathways in the rock. There is also some evidence to suggest that ghost-rock karstification may be superseded by karstification by total removal, and vice versa, according to the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system. The proposed chemical weathering and subsequent mechanical erosion of limestone suggest that the development of karst terrain is related far more closely to the geomorphological development of aluminosilicate and siliceous terrains than is generally supposed. It is now necessary to reconsider the origin of many karst systems in light of the outlined process of ghost-rock karstification. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Nielsen A.B.,University of Gottingen | Nielsen A.B.,Lund University | Giesecke T.,University of Gottingen | Theuerkauf M.,Institute For Botanik Und Landschaftsokologie | And 17 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2012

By applying the recently developed model REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) (Sugita, 2007) to pollen data from a large number of sites across Northern Germany and Denmark, we construct maps of regional patterns in landscape openness and in cover abundance of key plant taxa in the cultural landscape of north-central Europe for selected time slices in the Holocene. The results indicate that the pattern of landscape openness across the regions of northern Germany and Denmark prior to the introduction of agriculture was affected by soil conditions and degree of continentality. The 8.2 ka climate event did not lead to a general decrease in tree cover, although some changes in species composition were observed. The early phases of agriculture also had little effect on landscape openness at the regional scale, but later human impact lead to large scale deforestation and development of arable areas, grasslands and of heathlands in the north-western part of the region. The timing and degree of deforestation, and the weight between arable and grazing areas varied in space, partly due to differences in natural conditions, partly due to differences in cultural impact. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ducrettet F.,Institute Of Recherche Criminelle Of La Gendarmerie Nationale | Georges P.,Institute Of Recherche Criminelle Of La Gendarmerie Nationale | Georges P.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Georges P.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap | And 4 more authors.
Revue de Medecine Legale | Year: 2013

Since its creation, the Institute of Forensic Research of the National Gendarmerie (IRCGN) was organised to address the numerous cases of buried bodies. For 20 years, the Department of Anthropology-Thanatology-Odontology (Dept. ATO) of IRCGN, the most important French laboratory for forensic anthropology, has developed its field methodologies, based particularly on the Anglo-Saxon experience. It is also engaged in important programs for training and research. Indeed, the National Gendarmerie is currently the only institution to have formalised forensic archaeology, allowing protocols for the treatment of cases from the scene of the crime (excavation of clandestine graves) to the laboratory. This contribution is thus the occasion to detail all of the activities of forensic archaeology at the Dept. ATO of IRCGN, to point out the deep links that exist with forensic anthropology and to present some basic methodological principles. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Toulemonde F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Durand F.,UMR 5608 Traces | Berrio L.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Bonnaire E.,Communaute d'Agglomeration du Douaisis | And 2 more authors.
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

Following the first identification in 2000 of a new type of hulled wheat from three Neolithic settlements and a Bronze Age one in Greece, many finds of this “new” glume wheat have been reported from all over Europe and the Near East. In France, a first identification in 2009 also triggered several discoveries. Up to now, twelve sites have delivered remains of this new type, from different phases of occupation, located in the eastern half of France. Their chronology ranges from Neolithic Linearbandkeramik to late Bronze Age/early Iron Age transition (5300–800/700 bc). At most of the sites, the “new” glume wheat appears as a minor contaminant of other cereal crops. However, at the early Bronze Age settlement of Clermont-Ferrand, central France, the recovery of large quantities of caryopses and spikelet bases has demonstrated that the “new” glume wheat was a crop by itself, maybe mixed with emmer and other cereals. For the late Bronze Age, numerous records of the new type come from the upper Seine valley, north-eastern France. At four settlements with early phases of the late Bronze Age, the “new” glume wheat was also a crop in its own right, within a much diversified agricultural system. In the light of the numerous archaeobotanical analyses carried out on Bronze Age sites in France, and despite the fact that its presence is surely underestimated, cultivation of the “new” glume wheat appears to have been a speciality, restricted to a few places. It may have come from a local agricultural choice, but it could also have resulted from eastern influences and exchanges that were very active during the Bronze Age. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Heiss A.G.,University of Vienna | Pouget N.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap | Wiethold J.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap | Delor-Ahu A.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap | Le Goff I.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2015

During a rescue excavation by the Institut de recherches archéologiques préventives (Inrap) at the Gallo-Roman cemetery of Saint-Memmie (Champagne-Ardenne, France) in 2006, a remarkably well-preserved charred flat bread was unearthed from a pit containing a secondary deposit of burnt objects (feature 109/110), dating to a time frame between the middle of the 1st century AD and the beginning of the Flavian period (69 AD). As a part of the archaeobotanical research on the charred plant remains from the site, the bread was analyzed with the aim to reveal the cereals used in the bread's preparation and to investigate the processes involved (grinding, sieving, leavening, baking). The results indicate that the bread is composed of finely ground flour of a mixture of barley (. Hordeum vulgare L.) and either einkorn (. Triticum monococcum L.) or emmer (. Triticum dicoccon Schrank.), and apparently was prepared without leavening. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | University of Mons, Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap, Lille University of Science and Technology, University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne and Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Type: | Journal: Environmental microbiology | Year: 2016

Remains of a medieval foundry were excavated by archaeologists in 2013 in Verdun (France). Ancient workshops specialized in brass and copper alloys were found with an activity between 13th to 16th c. Levels of Cu, Zn and Pb reached 20000, 7000 and 6000 mg kg

Sun X.,Nanjing University | Sun X.,French Natural History Museum | Mercier N.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Falgueres C.,French Natural History Museum | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2010

The site of Bonneval (France) exhibits a 6 m thick stratigraphical sequence in which Middle and Lower Palaeolithic artefacts were discovered. The stratigraphy of the site consists of an alternation of loess-like silt layers deposited along glacial stages, and paleosoil horizons corresponding to the vegetal stabilization of the area during interglacials. These layers hence provide past environmental informations and can be used as stratigraphical markers and compared with well dated sequences of Northern France. Eight sediment samples from this Middle and Upper Pleistocene sequence were dated using the recuperated optically stimulated luminescence (Re-OSL) signal of quartz grains. The middle-size fraction (40-63 μm) shows a good reproducibility of the OSL signals which allows the application of a multiple-aliquot additive-dose approach for De determination. For all samples, the growth curves are linear up to an accumulated dose of 3000 Gy. The Re-OSL ages range from ∼100 to ∼450 ka and are in good agreement with the independent chronological information; they establish when handaxe industries have been made during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene in the Paris Basin. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dreibrodt S.,University of Kiel | Wiethold J.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap
Holocene | Year: 2015

The environmental history since the onset of agriculture was reconstructed from sediments and soils in the catchment area of Lake Belau (Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany). The established chronologies are based on varve counts, radiocarbon data, embedded Icelandic tephra (lake sediments), radiocarbon dates, and embedded artifacts (slope deposits). Neolithic land use triggered small-scale erosion. Lake trophic indicators and pollen data clearly reflect the onset of agriculture and the middle Neolithic expansion of agricultural activity. Despite numerous archaeological findings, less intensive field use and no soil erosion occurred during the older and younger Bronze Age. Perhaps, animal husbandry was more important than cereal cultivation. Between 2000 and 500 cal. bc, Aeolian input from a distant source can be observed. During the late Bronze Age and Pre-Roman Iron Age, intensified field use enabled severe soil erosion (gullies c. 200 cal. bc). The degradation of soils started in this period, influenced by excessive land use, climatic variability, and/or the reduction in Aeolian deposition. The Roman Iron Age and Migration Period were phases of reduced human impact and soil formation. During medieval times, the intensity of field use increased again and another phase of soil erosion (gully in the 14th century, probably reflecting the ‘Magdalenenflut’ 1342) and soil degradation started. After the late medieval crisis caused by the ‘black death’ and several armed conflicts, another increase in soil erosion may reflect the rearrangement of estates (18th−19th century) and introduction of industrial agriculture (20th century). A recurrence of high-intensity erosion events is indicated at c. 1540, 1710, and probably 1939 ad. Whereas the lake trophic status is influenced by human impact on the lake catchment, wetter and warmer climatic phases are reflected in increased carbonate precipitation modulated by solar activity, human impact, and the long-term evolution of vegetation and soils in the lake catchment. © The Author(s) 2014.

Moureau S.,The Warburg Institute | Thomas N.,Institute National Of Recherches Archeologiques Preventives Inrap
Ambix | Year: 2016

The article aims to show how experimentation can help us understand historical texts, by focusing on the specific case of cupellation in Arabic scientific literature. It also provides new information about cupellation in the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The article consists of translations of three of the most detailed accounts of cupellation: Hamdānī’s Kitāb al-jawharatayn al-‘atīqatayn (first half of the fourth/tenth century), Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, Rutbat al-ḥakīm (339–342/950–953), and Manṣūr b. Ba‘ra, Kitāb kashf al-asrār al-‘ilmiyya bi-dār al-ḍarb al-miṣriyya (615–635/1218–1238). These are accompanied by commentaries based on a series of experiments carried out in the course of archaeological research on cupellation, which are here used to shed new light on the medieval texts and resolve several problems in interpreting them. © 2016, © Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry 2016.

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