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Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France

Wioland L.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chevret P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2015

Sound prediction in open-plan offices is a real challenge for room acoustics models because of the large dimensions involved and because of the complexity of the interior layout. For these reasons, the geometrical theory, based on a high frequency hypothesis, is often cited as an advantageous solution. Two types of approaches are, in general, developed under this hypothesis: the phase-included approach and the energy-based or "incoherent" approach. In this paper, comparisons are presented between calculations performed using these two approaches and measurements conducted in the laboratory where workstations were separated by low dividers and placed under ceilings that were absorbent to various extents. Particular attention was paid to processing diffraction using the uniform theory of diffraction. Narrow-band comparisons between calculations and measurements show that the phase-included model is flawed at low frequencies whenever the characteristic dimensions of the elements of the room (desk, low divider, etc.) are of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength. Conversely, the incoherent formulation, which removes the part played by the interference, gives results at least as accurate, be it in octave band or overall. Boasting very short computation times, the incoherent approach opens up interesting prospects for acoustic predictions in large open-plan offices. © 2015 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Chevret P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2016

The sensitivity of intelligibility to ambient noise modulation is analyzed in this paper by means of two laboratory tests. The first one consists of measuring release from masking using acoustic samples composed of speech noise synthesized in the laboratory, but also real signals measured in two open plan offices. The Speech Reception Threshold values obtained from the experiment for the synthetic signals are compared with the literature. Those obtained for the real samples show significant differences as a function of the open-plane office. Secondly, a new indicator based on the calculation of the speech transmission index (IEC 60268-16, 2011) is proposed, by taking into account the modulation of the ambient noise in the 4 Hz octave band. Simultaneously, a second intelligibility experiment is performed, resulting in a very good correlation between the intelligibility scores and the new indicator. To complete the evaluation, the sound samples of the first test are reused to demonstrate that the indicator is a good descriptor of release from masking due to the modulation of ambient noise for the synthetic signals and that it is capable of classifying work spaces in terms of level of distraction. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bonthoux F.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2016

Welding fumes are classified as Group 2B 'possibly carcinogenic' and this prompts to the implementation of local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The fume extraction torch with LEV integrated into the tool is the most attractive solution but its capture efficiency is often disappointing in practice. This study assesses the main parameters affecting fume capture efficiency namely the extraction flow rate, the positioning of the suction openings on the torch, the angle of inclination of the torch to the workpiece during welding, the metal transfer modes, and the welding deposition rate. The theoretical velocity induced by suction, estimated from the extraction flow rate and the position of the suction openings, is the main parameter affecting effectiveness of the device. This is the design parameter and its value should never be <0.25 m s-1. The angle of the torch relative to the workpiece also has a great deal of influence. To improve efficiency, work station layouts need to favour positions where the torch is held with angles closer to perpendicular (<15°). Welding with high deposition rates (>1.1g s-1) and spray transfer leads to low capture efficiency if induced velocities are <0.5 m s-1. The results of the study can be used in the design of integrated on-torch extraction systems and provide information for fixing system objectives. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society. Source

Duquenne P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite | Marchand G.,Service Prevention des Risques Chimiques et Biologiques | Duchaine C.,Laval University
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2013

Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. Worker exposure to endotoxins has been shown in a number of work situations and is associated with both respiratory and systemic pathologies. The lack of an occupational exposure limit is mainly due to the absence of a standard protocol at the international level for sampling and analyzing airborne endotoxins. The bibliographic review in this article takes an exhaustive look at the current knowledge on measuring airborne endotoxins. It shows that, despite several reference documents at the international level, the methods used to measure endotoxin exposure differ considerably from one laboratory to another. Standardization is necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability and, ultimately, to improve the use of interstudy data. The bibliographic review presents the current status of standardization for airborne endotoxin measurement methods in the workplace and summarizes areas for further research. This article is both a reference document for all operators wishing to use such methods and a working document to build international consensus around the measurement of airborne endotoxins. Source

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