Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-29-2015 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2016
A definitive conclusion about the dangers associated with human or animal exposure to a particular nanomaterial can currently be made upon complex and costly procedures including complete NM characterisation with consequent careful and well-controlled in vivo experiments. A significant progress in the ability of the robust nanotoxicity prediction can be achieved using modern approaches based on one hand on systems biology, on another hand on statistical and other computational methods of analysis. In this project, using a comprehensive self-consistent study, which includes in-vivo, in-vitro and in-silico research, we address main respiratory toxicity pathways for representative set of nanomaterials, identify the mechanistic key events of the pathways, and relate them to interactions at bionano interface via careful post-uptake nanoparticle characterisation and molecular modelling. This approach will allow us to formulate novel set of toxicological mechanism-aware end-points that can be assessed in by means of economic and straightforward tests. Using the exhaustive list of end-points and pathways for the selected nanomaterials and exposure routs, we will enable clear discrimination between different pathways and relate the toxicity pathway to the properties of the material via intelligent QSARs. If successful, this approach will allow grouping of materials based on their ability to produce the pathway-relevant key events, identification of properties of concern for new materials, and will help to reduce the need for blanket toxicity testing and animal testing in the future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.3-3 | Award Amount: 49.52M | Year: 2013
The innovative and economic potential of Manufactured Nano Materials (MNMs) is threatened by a limited understanding of the related EHS issues. While toxicity data is continuously becoming available, the relevance to regulators is often unclear or unproven. The shrinking time to market of new MNM drives the need for urgent action by regulators. NANoREG is the first FP7 project to deliver the answers needed by regulators and legislators on EHS by linking them to a scientific evaluation of data and test methods. Based on questions and requirements supplied by regulators and legislators, NANoREG will: (i) provide answers and solutions from existing data, complemented with new knowledge, (ii) Provide a tool box of relevant instruments for risk assessment, characterisation, toxicity testing and exposure measurements of MNMs, (iii) develop, for the long term, new testing strategies adapted to innovation requirements, (iv) Establish a close collaboration among authorities, industry and science leading to efficient and practically applicable risk management approaches for MNMs and products containing MNMs. The interdisciplinary approach involving the three main stakeholders (Regulation, Industry and Science) will significantly contribute to reducing the risks from MNMs in industrial and consumer products. NANoREG starts by analysing existing knowledge (from WPMN-, FP- and other projects). This is combined with a synthesis of the needs of the authorities and new knowledge covering the identified gaps, used to fill the validated NANoREG tool box and data base, conform with ECHAs IUCLID DB structure. To answer regulatory questions and needs NANoREG will set up the liaisons with the regulation and legislation authorities in the NANoREG partner countries, establish and intensify the liaisons with selected industries and new enterprises, and develop liaisons to global standardisation and regulation institutions in countries like USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Russia.
Wioland L.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013
Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chevret P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2015
Sound prediction in open-plan offices is a real challenge for room acoustics models because of the large dimensions involved and because of the complexity of the interior layout. For these reasons, the geometrical theory, based on a high frequency hypothesis, is often cited as an advantageous solution. Two types of approaches are, in general, developed under this hypothesis: the phase-included approach and the energy-based or "incoherent" approach. In this paper, comparisons are presented between calculations performed using these two approaches and measurements conducted in the laboratory where workstations were separated by low dividers and placed under ceilings that were absorbent to various extents. Particular attention was paid to processing diffraction using the uniform theory of diffraction. Narrow-band comparisons between calculations and measurements show that the phase-included model is flawed at low frequencies whenever the characteristic dimensions of the elements of the room (desk, low divider, etc.) are of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength. Conversely, the incoherent formulation, which removes the part played by the interference, gives results at least as accurate, be it in octave band or overall. Boasting very short computation times, the incoherent approach opens up interesting prospects for acoustic predictions in large open-plan offices. © 2015 Acoustical Society of America.
Chevret P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2016
The sensitivity of intelligibility to ambient noise modulation is analyzed in this paper by means of two laboratory tests. The first one consists of measuring release from masking using acoustic samples composed of speech noise synthesized in the laboratory, but also real signals measured in two open plan offices. The Speech Reception Threshold values obtained from the experiment for the synthetic signals are compared with the literature. Those obtained for the real samples show significant differences as a function of the open-plane office. Secondly, a new indicator based on the calculation of the speech transmission index (IEC 60268-16, 2011) is proposed, by taking into account the modulation of the ambient noise in the 4 Hz octave band. Simultaneously, a second intelligibility experiment is performed, resulting in a very good correlation between the intelligibility scores and the new indicator. To complete the evaluation, the sound samples of the first test are reused to demonstrate that the indicator is a good descriptor of release from masking due to the modulation of ambient noise for the synthetic signals and that it is capable of classifying work spaces in terms of level of distraction. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Deniel J.-M.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2016
Single monochromator array spectroradiometers are convenient instruments for measuring spectral quantities in the UV-Vis-NIR range. They monitor the sensor array signal based on the same integration time for all wavelengths. However, the signal-to-noise ratio may be too low to provide useful readings at weaker signal wavelengths. The so-called "bracketing" technique overcomes this drawback by performing successive retrievals using different integration times, thereby ensuring that sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio signals are recorded and non-relevant and low ratio signals are ignored. This paper proposes the use of an automated bracketing method based on the currently used array spectroradiometer noise models and analysis of retrieved spectra. Integration time at each array pixel fits spectral signal distribution with respect to a user-defined accuracy criterion and relevance constraints for the spectroradiometer used. © 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.
Saillenfait A.-M.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite |
Ndiaye D.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite |
Sabate J.-P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2015
Synthetic pyrethroids are present in numerous commercial insecticide formulations and have extensive indoor and outdoor applications worldwide, including agricultural, public, residential, and veterinary usages for pest control. Pyrethroid use has increased continuously in recent years. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information on human exposure and potential hazards associated with this class of pesticides. An initial keyword search in the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant articles. Were taken into considerations only the studies published in the last decade that have assessed exposure and health effects of pyrethroids in human populations. Literature review shows that exposure evaluations increasingly focus on biomonitoring and that a large number of recent epidemiological studies pertain to the effects of pyrethroids on male fertility and prenatal development.The main metabolites of pyrethroids have frequently been detected in urine samples from the general population, confirming widespread exposure of children and adults to one or more pyrethroids. Non-occupational exposure to pyrethroids mainly occurs through ingestion of residues in food, or ingestion of or dermal contact with contaminated house dust or surface-adhering particles, following domestic use. Although clinical features resulting from acute accidental exposure to pyrethroids are well described (e.g., paraesthesiae, and respiratory, eye and skin irritation), information regarding their chronic effects at low concentrations is both limited and controversial. Several recent epidemiological studies have raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on sperm quality and sperm DNA, reproductive hormones, and pregnancy outcomes. Early neurobehavioural development after in utero exposure is discussed. Further research is needed to clarify the possible risks associated with long-term environmental exposure to pyrethroids. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.
Bonthoux F.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2016
Welding fumes are classified as Group 2B 'possibly carcinogenic' and this prompts to the implementation of local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The fume extraction torch with LEV integrated into the tool is the most attractive solution but its capture efficiency is often disappointing in practice. This study assesses the main parameters affecting fume capture efficiency namely the extraction flow rate, the positioning of the suction openings on the torch, the angle of inclination of the torch to the workpiece during welding, the metal transfer modes, and the welding deposition rate. The theoretical velocity induced by suction, estimated from the extraction flow rate and the position of the suction openings, is the main parameter affecting effectiveness of the device. This is the design parameter and its value should never be <0.25 m s-1. The angle of the torch relative to the workpiece also has a great deal of influence. To improve efficiency, work station layouts need to favour positions where the torch is held with angles closer to perpendicular (<15°). Welding with high deposition rates (>1.1g s-1) and spray transfer leads to low capture efficiency if induced velocities are <0.5 m s-1. The results of the study can be used in the design of integrated on-torch extraction systems and provide information for fixing system objectives. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Duquenne P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite |
Marchand G.,Service Prevention des Risques Chimiques et Biologiques |
Duchaine C.,Laval University
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2013
Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. Worker exposure to endotoxins has been shown in a number of work situations and is associated with both respiratory and systemic pathologies. The lack of an occupational exposure limit is mainly due to the absence of a standard protocol at the international level for sampling and analyzing airborne endotoxins. The bibliographic review in this article takes an exhaustive look at the current knowledge on measuring airborne endotoxins. It shows that, despite several reference documents at the international level, the methods used to measure endotoxin exposure differ considerably from one laboratory to another. Standardization is necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability and, ultimately, to improve the use of interstudy data. The bibliographic review presents the current status of standardization for airborne endotoxin measurement methods in the workplace and summarizes areas for further research. This article is both a reference document for all operators wishing to use such methods and a working document to build international consensus around the measurement of airborne endotoxins.
Chevret P.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite |
Chatillon J.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Of Securite
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012
Sound prediction in open-plan offices is a real challenge because of the complexity of the layout of such offices, and therefore because of the multitude of acoustic phenomena involved. One such phenomenon, of primary importance, and not the least challenging of them, is the diffraction by screens and low dividers that usually partition the workspace. This paper describes implementing the equations of the Uniform Theory of Diffraction [McNamara (1990). Introduction to the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (Artech House, Boston)] in an existing ray-tracing model initially dedicated to sound prediction in industrial premises. For the purposes of validation, a series of measurements was conducted in a semi-Anechoic chamber in the same manner as Wang and Bradley [(2002). Appl. Acoust. 63, 849-866] but including real desktops instead of single screens. A first phase was dedicated to controlling the quality of the installation by making comparisons with McNamaras solution for a single screen on a rigid floor. Then, the validation itself was conducted with measurements on real desktops, first without a ceiling, and then with a rigid ceiling suspended above the double desk. The results of the comparisons between calculations and measurements in this configuration have demonstrated that the model is an effective tool for predicting sound levels in an open-plan office. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.