Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique

Nouakchott, Mauritania

Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique

Nouakchott, Mauritania
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The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of a study carried out in a cohort of 610 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Wilaya of Gorgol. The schistosomiasis prevalence rate was high ranging from 1.3 to 30.1% depending on location and from 7.9 to 13.7% according to age. Parasite loads up to 14 eggs/10 mL were measured. Children living in the wet zone were significantly more infected than those living in the intermediate and dry zones (p = 0.005). However, no significant difference in prevalence was found according to age (p = 0.258). Infection rate and parasite burden were correlated with exposure in terms of frequency of contact with permanent water sources. Schoolchildren in frequent contact with breeding grounds were more vulnerable to urinary schistosomiasis. Areas along the riverbank were more affected than areas located away from the river or permanent water sources.

Pham A.T.,University of Oslo | Malterud K.E.,University of Oslo | Paulsen B.S.,University of Oslo | Diallo D.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | Wangensteen H.,University of Oslo
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

From a methanol extract of the leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, cis-polyisoprene (1), chebulic acid trimethyl ester (2), methyl gallate (3), shikimic acid (4), corilagin (5), rutin (6), narcissin (7), chebulagic acid (8) and chebulinic acid (9), were isolated. Cispolyisoprene (1) was the major non-polar constituent. The novel compound 2 showed high radical scavenging activity (IC 50 4.7 μg/mL), but was inactive as xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The major substituent of the crude extract, substance 5, showed a high radical scavenger effect (IC 50 2.7 μg/mL) and weak xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC 50 ca 105 μg/mL). The antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of some of the substances identified in this study may to some extent explain the medical use of this tree in West Africa.

Lai Y.-S.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Biedermann P.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Ekpo U.F.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Garba A.,Reseau International Schistosomose | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Schistosomiasis affects more than 200 million individuals, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but empirical estimates of the disease burden in this region are unavailable. We used geostatistical modelling to produce high-resolution risk estimates of infection with Schistosoma spp and of the number of doses of praziquantel treatment needed to prevent morbidity at different administrative levels in 44 countries. Methods: We did a systematic review to identify surveys including schistosomiasis prevalence data in sub-Saharan Africa via PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and African Journals Online, from inception to May 2, 2014, with no restriction of language, survey date, or study design. We used Bayesian geostatistical meta-analysis and rigorous variable selection to predict infection risk over a grid of 1 155 818 pixels at 5 × 5 km, on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic predictors and to calculate the number of doses of praziquantel needed for prevention of morbidity. Findings: The literature search identified Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni surveys done in, respectively, 9318 and 9140 unique locations. Infection risk decreased from 2000 onwards, yet estimates suggest that 163 million (95% Bayesian credible interval [CrI] 155 million to 172 million; 18·5%, 17·6-19·5) of the sub-Saharan African population was infected in 2012. Mozambique had the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children (52·8%, 95% CrI 48·7-57·8). Low-risk countries (prevalence among school-aged children lower than 10%) included Burundi, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, and Rwanda. The numbers of doses of praziquantel needed per year were estimated to be 123 million (95% CrI 121 million to 125 million) for school-aged children and 247 million (239 million to 256 million) for the entire population. Interpretation: Our results will inform policy makers about the number of treatments needed at different levels and will guide the spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions. Funding: European Research Council, China Scholarship Council, UBS Optimus Foundation, and Swiss National Science Foundation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Karagiannis-Voules D.-A.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Karagiannis-Voules D.-A.,University of Basel | Biedermann P.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Biedermann P.,University of Basel | And 21 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Interest is growing in predictive risk mapping for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), particularly to scale up preventive chemotherapy, surveillance, and elimination efforts. Soil-transmitted helminths (hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura) are the most widespread NTDs, but broad geographical analyses are scarce. We aimed to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, including the number of infected people and treatment needs, across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and African Journal Online from inception to Dec 31, 2013, without language restrictions, to identify georeferenced surveys. We extracted data from household surveys on sources of drinking water, sanitation, and women's level of education. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to align the data in space and estimate risk of with hookworm, A lumbricoides, and T trichiura over a grid of roughly 1 million pixels at a spatial resolution of 5 × 5 km. We calculated anthelmintic treatment needs on the basis of WHO guidelines (treatment of all school-aged children once per year where prevalence in this population is 20-50% or twice per year if prevalence is greater than 50%). Findings: We identified 459 relevant survey reports that referenced 6040 unique locations. We estimate that the prevalence of hookworm, A lumbricoides, and T trichiura among school-aged children from 2000 onwards was 16·5%, 6·6%, and 4·4%. These estimates are between 52% and 74% lower than those in surveys done before 2000, and have become similar to values for the entire communities. We estimated that 126 million doses of anthelmintic treatments are required per year. Interpretation: Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection in sub-Saharan Africa have changed and the prevalence of infection has declined substantially in this millennium, probably due to socioeconomic development and large-scale deworming programmes. The global control strategy should be reassessed, with emphasis given also to adults to progress towards local elimination. Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation and European Research Council. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Gower C.M.,Imperial College London | Gabrielli A.F.,Imperial College London | Gabrielli A.F.,World Health Organisation | Sacko M.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | And 5 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2011

The recent implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) for control of uro-genital schistosomiasis has identified an urgent need for molecular markers to both directly monitor the impact of MDA, for example to distinguish re-infections from uncleared infections, as well as understand aspects of parasite reproduction and gene flow which might predict evolutionary change, such as the development and spread of drug resistance. We report the development of a novel microsatellite tool-kit allowing, for the first time, robust genetic analysis of individual S. haematobium larvae collected directly from infected human hosts. We genotyped the parasite populations of 47 children from 2 schools in the Ségou region of Mali, the first microsatellite study of this highly neglected parasite. There was only limited evidence of population subdivision between individual children or between the two schools, suggesting that few barriers to gene flow exist in this population. Complex relationships between parasite reproductive success, infection intensity and host age and gender were identified. Older children and boys harboured more diverse infections, as measured by the number of unique adult genotypes present. Individual parasite genotypes had variable reproductive success both across hosts, a pre-requisite for evolutionary selection, and, phenotypically, in hosts of different ages and genders. These data serve as a baseline against which to measure the effect of treatment on parasite population genetics in this region of Mali, and the tools developed are suitable to further investigate this important pathogen, and its close relatives, throughout their range. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Faye O.,Institute Pasteur | Ba H.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | Ba Y.,Institute Pasteur | Freire C.C.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa.

PubMed | Aix - Marseille University, Center Hospitalier, Institute National Dhepato Virologie Of Nouakchott, Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Rift Valley Fever epizootics are characterized by numerous abortions and mortality among young animals. In humans, the illness is usually characterized by a mild self-limited febrile illness, which could progress to more serious complications.Objectives. The aim of the present prospective study was to describe severe clinical signs and symptoms of Rift Valley Fever in southern Mauritania.Suspected cases were enrolled in Kiffa (Assaba) and Aleg (Brakna) Hospital Centers from September 1 to November 7, 2015, based on the presence of fever, hemorrhagic or meningoencephalitic syndromes, and probable contact with sick animals. Suspected cases were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).There were thirty-one confirmed cases. The sex ratio M/F and the average age were 2.9 and 25 years old [range, 4-70 years old], respectively. Mosquito bites, direct contact with aborted or dead animals, and frequent ingestion of milk from these animals were risk factors observed in all patients. Hemorrhagic and neurological manifestations were observed in 81% and 13% of cases, respectively. The results of laboratory analysis showed high levels of transaminases, creatinine, and urea associated with thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia. All patients who died (42%) had a hemorrhagic syndrome and 3 of them had a neurological complication. Among the cured patients, none had neurologic sequelae.The hemorrhagic form was the most common clinical manifestation of RVF found in southern Mauritania and was responsible for a high mortality rate. Our results justify the implementation of a continuous epidemiological surveillance.

Ould Ahmed Salem C.B.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | Schneegans F.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire | Chollet J.Y.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire | Jemli M.H.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus. Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been performed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75%) and camels (76%) was significantly higher than that of sheep (24%) and cattle (23%) (P<0.0001). Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localizations in humans (50%) and camels (72.7%) and in the liver in sheep (76.1%) and cattle (82.3%). Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s) diversity of E. granulosus.

Wilson S.,University of Cambridge | Jones F.M.,University of Cambridge | Fofana H.K.M.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | Doucoure A.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA) and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate if praziquantel treatment of human schistosomiasis haematobium also boosts circulating IL-5, the immunological and parasitological factors that predispose to this, and the relationship between these and subsequent immunity to post-treatment re-infection. Methodology/Principle Findings: The relationship between pre-treatment SWA-IgE, eosinophil number and infection intensity and the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost was investigated in a Malian cohort (aged 5-40 yrs), exposed to S. haematobium. Eotaxin levels were measured at 24-hr post-treatment as a proxy of eosinophil migration. The relationship between the 24-hr post-treatment IL-5 boost and later eosinophil numbers and SWA-IgE levels (9-wk post-treatment) was examined, then investigated in the context of subsequent levels of re-infection (2-yr post-treatment). Circulating IL-5 levels increased 24-hr post-treatment and were associated with pre-treatment infection intensity, SWA-IgE levels, eosinophil number, as well as 24-hr post-treatment eotaxin levels. 24-hr IL-5 levels were, in turn, significantly associated with eosinophil number and elevated SWA-IgE 9-wk later. These SWA-IgE levels were significantly associated with immunity to re-infection. Conclusions/Significance: Early IL-5 production after treatment-induced exposure to S. haematobium worm antigen is positively associated with antigen dose (infection intensity), IgE availability for arming of effector cells at time of treatment and subsequent eosinophil migration response (as indicated by eotaxin levels). The IL-5 produced is positively associated with increased downstream eosinophil number and increases in specific IgE levels, implicating this cytokine boost and its down-stream consequences in the production and maintenance of IgE, and subsequent re-infection immunity. © 2013 Wilson et al.

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and the associated adverse effects in pregnant women living in hyperendemic area of Sélingué in Mali on pregnancy outcome. Pharmacovigilance aims, monitoring the risk of adverse effects resulting from the use of drugs and products for human use licensees of marketing. IPT with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is based on the administration of 2 doses of SP treatment in pregnant women at defined intervals after about 18-20 weeks of pregnancy. The survey on attitudes and behavioural practices (KAP) has allowed us to interview 210 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the health district of Sélingué. Almost all women (99%) affirm to know malaria and 84.8% to know clinical signs of malaria. Self medication was practiced by 40% of the expectant mothers. A small proportion of women affirm to have mosquito nets (8.6%) while 14.3% affirm to use impregnated insecticide mosquito nets. The rate of severe anaemia was 30.5% (Hb < 7 g/dl) after the first dose and 13.3% after the second dose of S-P. In parallel, the rate of moderate anaemia (Hb 7-9g /dl) decreased by 54.8% after the first dose to 26.2% after the second dose. Anaemia was higher within multigestes (32.1%) compared with the primigestes (21.7%). We did not observe any case of therapeutic failure with S-P nor infection in our study. The rate of prematurity was 3% while the rate low birth weight was 17.6%. Observed adverse reactions were primarily nauseas and stomach upset (1.9% after first S-P dose and 1% after the 2nd dose of S-P). No case of severe side effects or malformations was observed within new-born babies. In conclusion, IPT with S-P was well tolerated by pregnant women living in Sélingué and presents very few minor secondary reactions. The S-P is currently the only antimalarial drug with a single-dose which has a prolonged action and which also has ideal properties (low cost, several data on its tolerance and its facility of use) for a better use during the pregnancy in Africa.

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