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Hemissi I.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie Inrat | Hemissi I.,Unite Technologies | Hemissi I.,Institute National Dagronomie Of Tunis Inat | Mabrouk Y.,Unite Technologies | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to study the antagonist effect of two Rhizobium strains Pch Azm and Pch S.Nsir2 to Rhizoctonia solani and for an evaluation of the relative impact of rhizobia on the expression of the plant's defence response against Rhizoctonia. First, these strains reduced fungal growth observed in vitro using the same or separately Petri dishes. Moreover, these isolates led to reduced chickpea infection by R. solani, resulting from the direct effect of rhizobia on pathogens and possible induced resistance in chickpea. Concomitantly, reduction in infection was accompanied by enhanced level of defence-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POX). An increased level of phenol content was recorded in the roots of bacterized plants grown in the presence of pathogen. The results promise the use of rhizobia for protection of chickpea against R. solani. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Zrig A.,Gabes University | Tounekti T.,Jazan University | Tounekti T.,University of Antwerp | BenMohamed H.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie Inrat | And 4 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

It was examined how essential cations, Ca2+ and K+, can mitigate the toxic effects of NaCl on two different almond species (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) rootstocks, Garnem (GN15) and Bitter Almond. The tree growth parameters (water potential (Ψw), gas exchange, nutrient uptake) and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content were measured in control and NaCl-treated plants with or without KCl or CaCl2 supplements. The addition of CaCl2 and KCl to Bitter Almond trees reduced their dry weight, shoot growth and leaf number although net photosynthetic assimilation rate (A) was not affected. These results indicated that changing of photo-assimilates flux to proline and/or soluble sugars synthesis may help to increase leaf Ψw. The Garnem trees also did not respond to the CaCl2 and KCl addition indicating that the plants are already getting enough of these two cations (Ca2+ and K+). In both rootstocks, NaCl in the medium reduced growth attributes, Ψw, A, stomatal conductance (gs), and leaf Chl content. When CaCl2 and KCl fertilizers were added together with NaCl to Bitter Almond trees, leaf K+ and Ca2+ contents increased while Na+ and Cl– decreased leading to higher Ca/Na and K/Na ratios, but shoot growth was not improved and even declined compared to NaCl-treated trees. It appears that the addition of salts further aggravated osmotic stress as indicated by the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in leaf tissues. The addition of KCl or CaCl2 to NaCl-treated GN15 trees did not increase A, leaf Ψw, and shoot growth but improved ionic balances as indicated by higher Ca/Na and K/Na ratios. The reduction in A was mainly due to non-stomatal limitations in GN15, possibly due to the degradation of Chl a, unlike Bitter Almond, for which the reduction of A was due to stomata closure. The improvement in ionic balances and water status of Bitter Almond trees in response to addition of KCl or CaCl2 was apparently offset by a high sensitivity to Cl–; therefore, no-chloride salts should be the preferred forms of fertilizers for this rootstock. Both rootstocks were sensitive to soil salinity and cation supplements were of limited value in mitigating the effect of excessive salt concentrations. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Babay E.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Babay E.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie Inrat | Chaabane R.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie Inrat | Mzid-Abdmouleh R.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Ben Naceur M.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie Inrat
Bioscience Journal | Year: 2015

The genetic diversity of a set of 21 hexaploid wheat germplasm from the National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia were investigated by applying 26 agro morphological traits and 10 wheat microsatellites molecular markers (Simple Sequence Repeat). The morphological variability was analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the cluster analysis based on ward’s method and square Euclidean distance. Eighteen microsatellites primer pairs were tested for all genotypes, among them 10 primers generated polymorphic and reproducible profiles. They revealed a total of 414 reducible bands among which 373 were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values per locus varied from 0,33 to 0,94 with an average of 0,72. Genetic similarity values between genotypes, calculated by the molecular derived data, were used to produce a dendrogram. The genotypes were clustered in four clear groups according to their origin, pedigree and in some cases to phenotypic characters similarities. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights received. Source

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