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Ben Ghnaya A.,University of Tunis | Ben Ghnaya A.,University of Carthage | Amri I.,University of Carthage | Hanana M.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Our study is in line with the valorization of Tunisian medicinal and aromatic plants in order to discover new bioactive natural products. So the aim was to characterized the physico-chemical properties and yield of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Tunisian Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Masters. Thirty one compounds were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS): they accounted for 91% of the essential oil composition with a majority of monoterpenes hydrocarbons (62.80%), in particular α-pinene (56.21%) and β-myrcene (3.08%). Further investigations allowed the identification of oxygenated monoterpenes, which represented 18.98%, with 1,8-cineole as the major compound of this fraction. The oil antifungal activity was assessed towards five phytopathogenic fungi. The strongest activity was observed against Botrytis cinerea with 71.17% inhibition. The oil herbicidal properties were tested on Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L. Results indicated that T. articulata essential oil completely inhibited the seed germination of S. arvensis L. at high concentration (4. μl/ml), while at low doses (1 and 2. μl/ml), it delayed the germination and reduced the seedling growth of both weeds tested. Indeed, the use of these essential oils causes inhibition of weeds germination by setting their vegetative growth. © 2016.


Ben Ghnaya A.,University of Tunis | Hanana M.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Amri I.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | Balti H.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2013

The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Tunisian Eucalyptus erythrocorys Linn. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifteen compounds were identified, representing 97 % of total oil, which was found to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (66.7 %), particularly in 1,8-cineole (54.8 %). The yield and the physico-chemical properties of oil were determined. The study of antifungal activity revealed that E. erythrocorys essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of five plant pathogenic fungi especially Bipolaris sorikiniana and Botritys cinerea. Moreover, herbicidal properties of the oil, tested on Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L. indicated that the E. erythrocorys oil completely inhibited the seed germination at high concentration (1.5 μl/ml), while at low doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 μl/ml) the oil acted by decreasing and delaying the germination and inhibiting the seedling growth of all tested weeds. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Rached Z.B.,Institute des Regions Arides | Gorai M.,Institute Superieur Of Biologie Appliquee Of Medenine | Mars M.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Maricm | Hamza N.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Neffati M.,Institute des Regions Arides
Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) | Year: 2014

This study aims to compare the morpho-phenological variability of nine accessions of Allium roseum L.from different bioclimatic zones of central and southern Tunisia. Results showed the presence of a large morpho-phenological diversity among the studied accessions. The number of homogeneous groups formed after multiple comparisons of means, ranging from two (for the descriptor average number of leaves) to seven (for descriptors average length of the flower stalk and average length of the vegetative phase). A principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to determine the nature and degree of divergence among accessions and the total variation was explained to nearly 86.6 % for the three main components. The HCA showed that these accessions are grouped into three classes that show a certain affinity among accessions according to their geographical origin. The accessions with the highest leaf number (vigorous) and which have the longest vegetative phase arc Sidi Bou Ali and Bir Ali. The latest provenances are: Sidi Bou Ali, Bir Ali, Lemaya and El Jem. These accessions are from the Sahel and central Tunisia. For both inflorescence number and vegetative vigour, it appears that accessions that have the highest reproductive and vegetative vigour are Sidi Bou Ali, Bir Ali and Lemaya originated from the Sahel and central Tunisia. The difference South-North is once again evident as regards the average number of seeds. Indeed, we note that the accessions from the South produced more seeds than the North. These results are of great interest for future breeding program for this species known for its culinary and therapeutic properties.


Boukhris-Bouhachem S.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Rouze-Jouan J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Souissi R.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Glais L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hulle M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Plant Pathology Journal | Year: 2011

In the context of Potato virus Y epidemiological study, fourteen aphid species were selected to investigate their relative transmission efficiency in laboratory using tobacco plant tests Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi. These aphid species were the ones most often trapped in Yellow Water Traps (YWTs). Transmission efficiency was evaluated in both winged and wingless individuals in cages under controlled conditions. The transmission efficiencies obtained varied from 3 to 95%. Besides Myzus persicae (Sulzer), a highly efficient vector, 13 other aphid species were screened for their capability of transmitting PVYNTN. Three aphid species, Aphis spiraecola Patch, A. gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach), appeared to propagate PVY greatly, with transmission efficiencies of 73, 71 and 68%, respectively. Even though Aphis fabae Scopoli was less efficient, with only a moderate efficiency of 43%, it is also suspected of being implicated in PVY dissemination. In 60% of the cases, results obtained from wingless and winged forms were very close. Consequently, five aphid species seem to represent a real risk for the spread of viruses given their abundance in traps. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center, Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie and Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

The study investigated, for cycling sheep, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard P protocol using progestogens priming with intravaginal devices and gonadotropin. In November 2014, 90 adult Menz ewes were assigned to either the P protocol, PGF treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11days apart or a GnRH treatment where the ewes had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. The ewes were naturally mated at the induced oestrus and the following 36days. Plasma progesterone revealed that 92% of the ewes were ovulating before synchronization and all, except one, ovulated in response to the applied treatments. All P ewes exhibited oestrus during the 96-hr period after the end of the treatments in comparison with only 79.3% and 73.3% for PGF and GnRH ewes, respectively (p<.05). Onset and duration of oestrus were affected by the hormonal treatment (p<.05); GnRH ewes showed oestrus earliest and had the shortest oestrous duration. Lambing rate from mating at the induced oestrus was lower for P than for PGF ewes (55.6% and 79.3%, respectively; p<.05). The same trait was also lower for P than for PGF and GnRH ewes (70.4%, 89.7% and 86.7%, respectively; p<.05) following the 36-day mating period. Prostaglandin and GnRH analogue-based protocols are promising alternatives for both controlled natural mating and fixed insemination of Menz sheep after the rainy season when most animals are spontaneously cycling.


Rekik M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ben Othmane H.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Lassoued N.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Sakly C.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: This study aims to develop at different seasons, for local North African Maure goats, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard 'S' protocol using progestagens in association with prostaglandins and gonadotropin. In late May, 40 goats were assigned to either the 'S' protocol or to a protocol where oestrus and ovulation were induced by the buck effect in single-injection progesterone-treated goats and provoking early luteolysis using prostaglandin 9 days after exposure to bucks 'B'. During the 72 h after the treatments ended, 15 and 5 goats expressed oestrus in the 'S' and 'B' protocols (p < 0.01). Mean time to oestrus was shorter for 'S' than for 'B' goats. Ovulation rate averaged 2.1 ± 0.22 and 1.60 ± 0.35 for, respectively, 'S' and 'B' goats (p > 0.05). During mid-September, 60 goats were assigned to either 'S' treatment, 'PGF' treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11 days apart or to 'GnRH' treatment where the goats had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with a GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. More 'S' goats were detected in oestrus over the 96-h period after the end of the treatments (88.8, 73.7 and 55% in 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' treatments, respectively; p < 0.05). Mean ovulation rates were 2.3 ± 0.27, 1.33 ± 0.27 and 1.33 ± 0.27 for, respectively, 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' goats (p < 0.001). Despite a similar ovulatory response to 'S' protocol, efficiency of prostaglandin and GnRH-based treatments should be tested in mid-breeding season. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Ahmed M.O.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Salem F.B.,Office de lElevage et des Paturages | Bedhiaf S.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | M'Naouer D.,Banque nationale des Genes
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and relationships among Tunisian camel populations in three different geographical locations (Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine) from Southern arid and semi-arid regions in Tunisia. Eight selected microsatellite markers were used for a sample of 90 dromedary genotypes. A total of 34 alleles were detected in the three populations. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to seven with an average of 4.25 alleles per locus. For each population the average of alleles per locus is 3.33, 3.71 and 3.87 for (Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine), respectively. The mean of the observed heterozygosity (Ho) were 0.43, 0.50, 0.57 and 0.52 for Kebili, Medenine, Tataouine and total populations, respectively. These values were lower than expected with heterozygosity (He) values 0.50, 0.57, 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient was 15.3% in Kebili, 11.4% in Medenine and 8.3% in Tataouine. The mean estimates of F-statistics were FIT = 0.15, FIS = 0.071 and FST = 0.083. These values were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05) and suggest a moderate differentiation. An inbreeding rate of 15% was found. Estimated genetic distances revealed by the loci varied from 0 to 0.9 between dromedary individuals. The estimated genetic distances pair-wise showed 0.104 among Medenine-Tataouine, 0.280 between Kebili-Medenine and 0.290 between Kebili-Tataouine. The distance matrix was able to distinguish between two separate genetic entities: Nefzawa (Kebili) including Merzougui, G'oudi and M'hari ecotypes and the Aaradh group (Medenine and Tataouine) that includes Maghribi and Khaouar ecotypes. The results of this study did not confirm the present classification established by dromedary herders who divide the population into five different ecotypes, apparently based on the sociogeographical criteria. These preliminary results showed that microsatellites are promising tools for breed characterization. They indicated that the populations under investigation have a high genetic variability and would be suitable as genetic stocks for conservation and sustainable utilization programs.


Gomez C.,Montpellier SupAgro | Le Bissonnais Y.,Montpellier SupAgro | Annabi M.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Bahri H.,Institute National Of Recherche En Genie Rural Eaux Et Forets | Raclot D.,Montpellier SupAgro
Geoderma | Year: 2013

The characterization of soil aggregate stability is an important step for assessing the susceptibility of soil to water erosion. A normalized international method has recently been proposed for estimating soil aggregate stability indexes (ISO/FDIS 10930, 2012), but extensive measurements of the soil aggregate stability for mapping erosion risks on the regional scale remain a fastidious enterprise. This paper explores three different approaches as an alternative to the normalized international measurements. The first, called the PTFs Approach, estimates aggregate stability indexes via elementary soil properties using multiple linear regression. The second one, called the RS Approach, estimates aggregate stability indexes via Laboratory (Lab) Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra using multivariate linear regressions. The third, called the RS+PTFs Approach first used the Lab Vis-NIR spectra to predict the elementary soil properties using multivariate linear regressions, which are then used to predict the soil aggregate stability indexes using multiple linear regression. These tests were performed on a collection of 113 soil samples from the Mediterranean region of Northern Tunisia. Four soil aggregate stability indexes were considered: three indexes calculated using three disruptive tests that correspond to various wetting conditions and energies, and the fourth index was the mean of the first three. This study shows that Lab Vis-NIR spectroscopy may be used directly in multivariate regression models to estimate two soil aggregate stability indexes (R2 val between 0.52 and 0.57, RPD between 1.47 and 1.61) with accuracy comparable to the multiple linear models in the PTFs Approach. Further investigations on various soil types, especially those for which the soil aggregate stability indexes were strongly correlated to organic carbon content, are encouraged to extend the utility and applicability of Lab Vis-NIR spectroscopy as an alternative method for soil aggregate stability indexes estimates.© 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kalai T.,Unite de recherche Nutrition et metabolismes azote et proteines de stress | Khamassi K.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,P. O. Box 7 | Gouia H.,Unite de recherche Nutrition et metabolismes azote et proteines de stress | Bettaieb Ben-Kaab L.,Unite de recherche Nutrition et metabolismes azote et proteines de stress
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

To assess cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) phytotoxicity, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. 'Manel') seeds were germinated for a period of 2 days in a solution containing CdCl2 (25, 50, and 100 μM) or CuSO4 (100, 300, and 500 μM). The growth of radicles and shoots decreased while the water content in stressed seeds remained near control values. A decline in α-amylase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase activities was also observed in endosperms, while β-amylase activity was only slightly modified by heavy metal treatments. Furthermore, Cd and Cu increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced soluble protein and sugar content even at the lowest dose, and induced a significant accumulation of proline, essentially in radicles. A synthesis of the results reveals that the inhibition of seed germination after exposure to Cd or Cu is not a consequence of reduced water uptake by seed tissues, but may be due to a failure in reserve mobilization from the endosperm. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis.


Chemak F.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Dhehibi B.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie
New Medit | Year: 2010

The economic approach to technical efficiency is increasingly taken into account by scientists in order to face two crucial issues concerning the optimal allocation of resources: saving the inputs and maximizing the productivity gains. This approach has been developed following two methods: the stochastic parametric and the nonparametric deterministic models. Each method shows its advantages and disadvantages, but their joint application allows the best result appreciation. Therefore, we applied the two methods to estimate the technical efficiency scores in the irrigated schemes of Sidi Bouzid region. The results indicate the resource use inefficiency and the close correlation of the two models. However the technical efficiency scores measured by the parametric method are clearly higher, thus confirming that it is appropriate to consider the production function to estimate the stochastic frontier. The analysis of the production partial elasticities highlights that water is a determining factor in the production technological process.

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