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Ben Ghnaya A.,University of Tunis | Hanana M.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Amri I.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | Balti H.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2013

The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Tunisian Eucalyptus erythrocorys Linn. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifteen compounds were identified, representing 97 % of total oil, which was found to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (66.7 %), particularly in 1,8-cineole (54.8 %). The yield and the physico-chemical properties of oil were determined. The study of antifungal activity revealed that E. erythrocorys essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of five plant pathogenic fungi especially Bipolaris sorikiniana and Botritys cinerea. Moreover, herbicidal properties of the oil, tested on Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L. indicated that the E. erythrocorys oil completely inhibited the seed germination at high concentration (1.5 μl/ml), while at low doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 μl/ml) the oil acted by decreasing and delaying the germination and inhibiting the seedling growth of all tested weeds. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Rached Z.B.,Institute des Regions Arides | Gorai M.,Institute Superieur Of Biologie Appliquee Of Medenine | Mars M.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Maricm | Hamza N.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Neffati M.,Institute des Regions Arides
Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) | Year: 2014

This study aims to compare the morpho-phenological variability of nine accessions of Allium roseum L.from different bioclimatic zones of central and southern Tunisia. Results showed the presence of a large morpho-phenological diversity among the studied accessions. The number of homogeneous groups formed after multiple comparisons of means, ranging from two (for the descriptor average number of leaves) to seven (for descriptors average length of the flower stalk and average length of the vegetative phase). A principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to determine the nature and degree of divergence among accessions and the total variation was explained to nearly 86.6 % for the three main components. The HCA showed that these accessions are grouped into three classes that show a certain affinity among accessions according to their geographical origin. The accessions with the highest leaf number (vigorous) and which have the longest vegetative phase arc Sidi Bou Ali and Bir Ali. The latest provenances are: Sidi Bou Ali, Bir Ali, Lemaya and El Jem. These accessions are from the Sahel and central Tunisia. For both inflorescence number and vegetative vigour, it appears that accessions that have the highest reproductive and vegetative vigour are Sidi Bou Ali, Bir Ali and Lemaya originated from the Sahel and central Tunisia. The difference South-North is once again evident as regards the average number of seeds. Indeed, we note that the accessions from the South produced more seeds than the North. These results are of great interest for future breeding program for this species known for its culinary and therapeutic properties. Source


Ben Ghnaya A.,University of Tunis | Ben Ghnaya A.,University of Carthage | Amri I.,University of Carthage | Hanana M.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Our study is in line with the valorization of Tunisian medicinal and aromatic plants in order to discover new bioactive natural products. So the aim was to characterized the physico-chemical properties and yield of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Tunisian Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Masters. Thirty one compounds were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS): they accounted for 91% of the essential oil composition with a majority of monoterpenes hydrocarbons (62.80%), in particular α-pinene (56.21%) and β-myrcene (3.08%). Further investigations allowed the identification of oxygenated monoterpenes, which represented 18.98%, with 1,8-cineole as the major compound of this fraction. The oil antifungal activity was assessed towards five phytopathogenic fungi. The strongest activity was observed against Botrytis cinerea with 71.17% inhibition. The oil herbicidal properties were tested on Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L. Results indicated that T. articulata essential oil completely inhibited the seed germination of S. arvensis L. at high concentration (4. μl/ml), while at low doses (1 and 2. μl/ml), it delayed the germination and reduced the seedling growth of both weeds tested. Indeed, the use of these essential oils causes inhibition of weeds germination by setting their vegetative growth. © 2016. Source


Gomez C.,Montpellier SupAgro | Le Bissonnais Y.,Montpellier SupAgro | Annabi M.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Bahri H.,Institute National Of Recherche En Genie Rural Eaux Et Forets | Raclot D.,Montpellier SupAgro
Geoderma | Year: 2013

The characterization of soil aggregate stability is an important step for assessing the susceptibility of soil to water erosion. A normalized international method has recently been proposed for estimating soil aggregate stability indexes (ISO/FDIS 10930, 2012), but extensive measurements of the soil aggregate stability for mapping erosion risks on the regional scale remain a fastidious enterprise. This paper explores three different approaches as an alternative to the normalized international measurements. The first, called the PTFs Approach, estimates aggregate stability indexes via elementary soil properties using multiple linear regression. The second one, called the RS Approach, estimates aggregate stability indexes via Laboratory (Lab) Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra using multivariate linear regressions. The third, called the RS+PTFs Approach first used the Lab Vis-NIR spectra to predict the elementary soil properties using multivariate linear regressions, which are then used to predict the soil aggregate stability indexes using multiple linear regression. These tests were performed on a collection of 113 soil samples from the Mediterranean region of Northern Tunisia. Four soil aggregate stability indexes were considered: three indexes calculated using three disruptive tests that correspond to various wetting conditions and energies, and the fourth index was the mean of the first three. This study shows that Lab Vis-NIR spectroscopy may be used directly in multivariate regression models to estimate two soil aggregate stability indexes (R2 val between 0.52 and 0.57, RPD between 1.47 and 1.61) with accuracy comparable to the multiple linear models in the PTFs Approach. Further investigations on various soil types, especially those for which the soil aggregate stability indexes were strongly correlated to organic carbon content, are encouraged to extend the utility and applicability of Lab Vis-NIR spectroscopy as an alternative method for soil aggregate stability indexes estimates.© 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kalai T.,Unite de recherche Nutrition et metabolismes azote et proteines de stress | Khamassi K.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,P. O. Box 7 | Gouia H.,Unite de recherche Nutrition et metabolismes azote et proteines de stress | Bettaieb Ben-Kaab L.,Unite de recherche Nutrition et metabolismes azote et proteines de stress
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

To assess cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) phytotoxicity, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. 'Manel') seeds were germinated for a period of 2 days in a solution containing CdCl2 (25, 50, and 100 μM) or CuSO4 (100, 300, and 500 μM). The growth of radicles and shoots decreased while the water content in stressed seeds remained near control values. A decline in α-amylase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase activities was also observed in endosperms, while β-amylase activity was only slightly modified by heavy metal treatments. Furthermore, Cd and Cu increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced soluble protein and sugar content even at the lowest dose, and induced a significant accumulation of proline, essentially in radicles. A synthesis of the results reveals that the inhibition of seed germination after exposure to Cd or Cu is not a consequence of reduced water uptake by seed tissues, but may be due to a failure in reserve mobilization from the endosperm. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis. Source

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