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Karnib H.H.,American University of Beirut | Gharavi A.G.,Columbia University | Aftimos G.,Institute National Of Pathologie | Mahfoud Z.,American University of Beirut | And 6 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Background. Differences in epidemiology of kidney disease across the Middle East may arise from variations in indication for biopsy, environmental exposure and socio-economic status. The Lebanese population is composed of different ethnicities, with distinct ancestry and religion, enabling comparison of their effect on the prevalence of kidney disease within a confined geographic setting and uniform practices. Here we report 5 years' detailed epidemiology of renal diseases, based on histological diagnosis, in a sample from three large pathology centres in Lebanon.Methods. Records of renal biopsies analysed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital and the Institut National de Pathologie from January 2003 till December 2007 were retrospectively examined. We recorded the following data for each patient: age, gender, indication for renal biopsy and histopathological diagnosis. Religious affiliation and parents' consanguinity were recorded when feasible.Results. The mean age at renal biopsy was 36.76 ± 20 years (range 184). The most common diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN; 20%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (13.2%). While there were no differences in age, gender or indications for biopsy among different religious affiliations, mesangioproliferative GN was significantly more frequent among Muslims (P = 0.039) and offspring of consanguineous unions (P = 0.036). On the other hand, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was most prevalent in Christians (P < 0.001).Conclusions. Variation in the distribution of diagnoses between Muslim and Christian groups likely reflects differences in population structure and ancestry. In particular, the increased prevalence of mesangioproliferative GN among offspring of consanguineous unions in Muslims suggests a recessive genetic component to this disease which may be identified via homozygosity mapping. These findings have important implications for formulating renal health policies and designing research studies in this population. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. Source

Otrock Z.K.,American University of Beirut | Saab J.,American University of Beirut | Aftimos G.,Institute National Of Pathologie | Nasr F.,Hotel Dieu Of France University Hospital | And 28 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research

Incidence of various Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes and association with viruses in Lebanon are not known. We undertook a nationwide study of 272 patients diagnosed with lymphoma in 2007. HL comprised 32.7 % (n = 89) of cases while NHL represented 67.3 % (n = 183). Consistent with the literature, nodular sclerosis was the most predominant HL subtype (n = 57/89). Among NHL, B-cell NHL represented 88 % (n = 161/183), T-cell NHL 9 % (n = 17/183), whereas in 2.7 % it was not classifiable. The B-cell NHL comprised predominantly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (46 %) and follicular lymphoma (23 %). 81 cases were reviewed by a panel of pathologists with 87.6 % concordance rate. Serology was negative for hepatitis C in 122 tested cases. HIV was positive in 2 cases. Two adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma were HTLV-I positive. EBV IgG were positive in 88.5 % of cases. 38 EBV seropositive cases [27 NHL (24 B-cell, 3 T-cell) and 11 HL] were studied for EBV genome expression using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER)-in situ hybridization. EBER expression was positive in 8 (21 %) cases (6 HL, 2 T-cell NHL). The distribution of lymphoma subtypes in Lebanon appears similar to that of Western countries. The high rate of EBV positivity in HL and T-cell lymphoma by EBER deserves further investigation. © 2013 Arányi Lajos Foundation. Source

Karam W.G.,Institute National Of Pathologie | Karam W.G.,Lebanese University | Rady A.,World Health Organization | Abdallah Hajj Hussein I.,American University of Beirut | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents

To study the cytology profile of cervical smears and the respective prevalence and incidence of certain cervico-vaginal infections detectable by routine Pap smear cytology in Lebanese women from 2002 to 2006. Pap smear cytology results were compiled from the archives of the "Institut National de Pathologie" for the period extending from 2002 until 2006. This study covered 118,230 cervical specimens obtained from Lebanese women attending clinics and hospitals in all the five districts of Lebanon; prevalence and incidence rates for infections detectable by routine Pap smear examination were determined. A rise in prevalence of these infections by 2.1% (2,555) from 2002 to 2006 was revealed. A doubling of Pap smears showing "HPV-associated changes" was detected (1.4% in 2002 to 2.9% in 2006), and a simultaneous almost 7-fold increase of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) cytology was detected during this period; the rise in ASCUS cytology was age-dependent. Moreover, a 60% increase in prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (2.3% in 2002 to 3.7% in 2006) and a more than 3-fold decline in Trichomonas vaginalis infection (1% in 2002 to 0.3% in 2006) were also noted in this population during this period. An increase in the prevalence and incidence of cervico-vaginal infections detectable by Pap smear cytology in Lebanese women was revealed from 2002 to 2006. Such changes could point to recent modifications of sexual and health behaviors in the Lebanese community. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s. Source

Hajje G.,Saint - Joseph University | Saliba Y.,Saint - Joseph University | Itani T.,Institute National Of Pathologie | Moubarak M.,Saint - Joseph University | And 2 more authors.

The cardiovascular effects of mild and overt thyroid disease include a vast array of pathological changes. As well, thyroid replacement therapy has been suggested for preserving cardiac function. However, the influence of thyroid hormones on cardiac remodeling has not been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid replacement therapy on cardiac alterations. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: a control (n = 10) group and a group treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) (n = 20) to induce hypothyroidism. Ten of the 20 rats in the PTU group were then treated with L-thyroxine to quickly re-establish euthyroidism. The serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL6) and pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), were significantly increased in hypothyroid rats; elevations in cardiac stress markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were also noted. The expressions of cardiac remodeling genes were induced in hypothyroid rats in parallel with the development of fibrosis, and a decline in cardiac function with chamber dilation was measured by echocardiography. Rapidly reversing the hypothyroidism and restoring the euthyroid state improved cardiac function with a decrease in the levels of cardiac remodeling markers. However, this change further increased the levels of inflammatory and fibrotic markers in the plasma and heart and led to myocardial cellular infiltration. In conclusion, we showed that hypothyroidism is related to cardiac function decline, fibrosis and inflammation; most importantly, the rapid correction of hypothyroidism led to cardiac injuries. Our results might offer new insights for the management of hypothyroidism-induced heart disease. © 2014 Hajje et al. Source

Maalouly G.,Saint - Joseph University | Ward C.,Saint - Joseph University | Smayra V.,Saint - Joseph University | Saliba Y.,Saint - Joseph University | And 3 more authors.
Nutritional Neuroscience

Introduction: Murine experimental models of antiphospholipid syndrome (eAPLS) showed neurologic dysfunction and therapeutic effect of the anticoagulant enoxaparin is well established. Omega-3 fatty acids and curcumin, tested in neuroinflammation and auto-immunity diseases, might be interesting therapeutic candidates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these candidates on neurologic severity in eAPLS. Methods: One month after immunization of BALB/c mice with beta-2-glycoprotein I, daily treatments were initiated with enoxaparin (1 mg/kg), omega-3 fatty acids (0.5 g/kg), and curcumin (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Results: Mortality was significantly decreased by enoxaparin and omega-3 treatments. Fish oil and curcumin group exhibited the highest mean of swimming behavior in forced swim test in surviving mice. Mice under omega-3 fatty acids or curcumin presented low anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test. Cerebral histopathology revealed heavy inflammatory infiltrates in cortical and subcortical regions with vacuolization, swelling, and degeneration of astrocytes in the control group, with aggravation under curcumin; no infiltrate was retrieved in enoxaparin and omega-3 groups. Conclusion: Our study is the first to demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect of omega-3 fatty acids in eAPLS. Enoxaparin and omega-3 fatty acids combination would be interesting for further investigation. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source

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