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Muthenna P.,National Institute of Nutrition
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2012

Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimer's disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited glycation as assessed by SDS-PAGE, AGE-fluorescence, boronate affinity chromatography and immunodetection of specific AGE. Further, we provided insight into the mechanism of inhibition of protein glycation that rutin not only scavenges free-radicals directly but also chelates the metal ions by forming complexes with them and thereby partly inhibiting post-Amadori formation. These findings indicate the potential of rutin to prevent and/or inhibit protein glycation and the prospects for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathological conditions in vivo. Source


Mansoori T.,Anand Eye Institute | Sarvepally V.K.,Pushpagiri Eye Institute | Balakrishna N.,National Institute of Nutrition
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2016

Purpose: To determine prevalence and anterior segment morphology of plateau iris in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) after laser peripheral iridotomy using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods: In this prospective study, 262 PACG patients and 144 normal controls underwent UBM examination. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by the presence of anteriorly directed ciliary process, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact in the same quadrant. At least 2 quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria. Results: UBM analysis showed plateau iris in 83/262 (31.68%, 95% confidence interval: 26.7%-37.9%) PACG eyes, it was common in female individuals (61.44%), and patients were significantly younger than PACG patients (P=0.006). Plateau iris was found in superior quadrant in 19/83 (22.89%) eyes, inferior quadrant in 19/ 83 (22.89%) eyes, nasal quadrant in 21/83 (25.3%) eyes, and temporal quadrant in 24/83 (28.91%) eyes. In plateau iris patients, the central anterior chamber depth was shallower, the anterior chamber angle, the scleral-iris angle, and the sclera-ciliary process angle were significantly narrower, and the trabecular ciliary process distance and the iris ciliary process distance were significantly shorter in patients than in PACG subjects. Conclusions: Patients with plateau iris had significantly shallow central ACD when compared with those with pupillary block and normal eyes. After laser peripheral iridotomy, about a third of PACG eyes had plateau iris. This is clinically important because these patients can develop synechial angle closure and should be followed up closely. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Rajanna A.,National Institute of Nutrition
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2016

Even though lots of efforts have been made to find different strategies for cancer treatments, currently available therapeutic approaches are chemotherapy, radiation and surgery or combination of these. These treatments prolonged the survival of patients but did not assure complete cure of the disease. Recent scientific evidences suggest that cancer stem cells (CSC) are responsible for recurrence, resistance and existence of this disease even after various therapeutic treatments. Therefore, we hypothesize that the best approach is to target CSCs along with cancer cells for complete remission of the disease. Before targeting these cells, studying their morphological, proliferation, behavioral aspects, physico-chemical interaction and characterizations are very important. For therapeutic approach the differentiation capacity of these cells to cancer cells with or without drugs is critical. To study basic parameters; the best approach would be aseptic sorting of CSCs from cancer cells based on specific cell surface markers by flowcytometer or magnetic cell sorter. The sorted cells have to be grown in culture conditions and treat with optimum concentrations of drugs to target CSC and cancer cell to find appropriate potential combination. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pragasam S.J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Venkatesan V.,National Institute of Nutrition | Rasool M.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Inflammation | Year: 2013

In this study, p-coumaric acid was evaluated for its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. The immunomodulatory effect of p-coumaric acid (100 mg/kg body weight) was assessed by evaluating its effect on cell-mediated immune responses (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction), serum immunoglobulin levels, and macrophage phagocytic index in rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of p-coumaric acid (100 mg/kg body weight) were investigated by examining its effect on expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in synovial tissue by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and circulating immune complexes in serum of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. The increased cell-mediated immune responses and macrophage phagocytic index observed in control rats were significantly reduced (p< 0.05) upon treatment with p-coumaric acid implying its immunosuppressive property, whereas serum immunoglobulin levels were found to be increased in p-coumaric acid treated control rats. p-coumaric acid also showed significant (p< 0.05) anti-inflammatory effects in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats by effecting a decrease in the expression of inflammatory mediator TNF-α and circulating immune complexes. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug for anti-inflammatory studies. Thus, our results show that p-coumaric acid could be considered a potential immunosuppressive agent in treating autoimmune inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Sinha S.N.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Vasudev K.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Vishnu Vardhana Rao M.,National Institute of Nutrition
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

A Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEchERS) extraction was developed and followed by selective analysis using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of eighteen pesticides in vegetable samples. This method was accurate (≥99.5%), and it exhibited limits of detection and quantification values in the 0.006-0.091 and 0.020-0.314 μg kg -1 ranges, respectively. Furthermore, the coefficients of variations (≥0.9999) were less than 1% at the low μg kg -1 end of the method. Mean recoveries ranged between 94% and 102%, and relative standard deviations were below 10%. Based on these results, the methodology was proven to be highly efficient, robust, and suitable for monitoring the maximum residue limits (MRL) compliance of a wide range of commodity/pesticide combination. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of vegetable samples that were collected from different government farmers' markets and street shops in urban areas. The presence of target pesticides was found in the range of 0.016 and 50.85 μg kg -1. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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