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Chaouch N.,Service de pneumologie | Mejid M.,Service de pneumologie | Zarrouk M.,Service de pneumologie | Racil H.,Service de pneumologie | And 3 more authors.
Revue de Pneumologie Clinique | Year: 2011

Drug-induced muscle disorders are now well known and vary from a simple isolated increase in muscle enzymes to severe drug-induced myopathy. The list of drugs inducing myopathy is very long and continues to grow. The onset of muscle disorders under isoniazid often falls within a drug-induced neuropathy or a drug-induced lupus. However, the occurrence of isolated isoniazid-induced drug myopathy without neuropathy is an extremely rare condition especially with non-toxic doses. The authors report the case of a 28-year-old man, without a previous medical history, hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis. After initiating tuberculosis treatment for five days, he presented muscle pain, fasciculation and weakness initially involving the lower left limb that quickly propagated to all four limbs. The physical examination noted a left ankle flush, a swollen left calf and fasciculation of both calves while the neurological examination was normal. The CPK was normal. Electromyography confirmed the myopathy without neuropathic findings. Isoniazid withdrawal was marked by the rapid disappearance of the symptoms. The reintroduction of a half-dose of isoniazid only induced a few transitional muscular fasciculations. The onset of the symptoms under tuberculosis treatment, the absence of later muscle disorders, the absence of any other cause of myopathy and the total disappearance of the symptoms after isoniazid withdrawal confirmed the diagnosis of isoniazid-induced myopathy. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Drissi C.,Pediatric Radiology | Drissi C.,Institute National Of Neurologie | Mitrofanoff M.,Plastic Surgery | Talandier C.,Plastic Surgery | And 5 more authors.
European Radiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic MRI with near-real-time temporal resolution for analysing velopharyngeal closure. Methods: Eleven children and young adults (seven girls, four boys, mean age: 8.4 years) with suspected velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and one healthy volunteer underwent MRI (1.5 Tesla) using T2 fast imaging sequences. Imaging was done without any sedation at rest and during various phonations in the axial and sagittal planes. Images were analysed by two radiologists, a plastic surgeon and a speech therapist. Results: The MRI examinations were well tolerated by even the youngest patient. A qualitative analysis found that the sagittal dynamic sequences during phonation were in relation to the clinical data in all patients. A quantitative analysis enabled calculation of the elevation angle of the soft palate in relation to the hard palate, the velar eminence angle and the percentage of reduction of the antero-posterior diameter of the pharyngeal lumen. Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is a non-invasive, rapid and repeatable method. It can be considered a complementary tool to endoscopy and fluoroscopy, particularly in children, for assessing VPI without any sedation or radiation exposure. © 2011 European Society of Radiology.

Dzamko N.,University of Dundee | Deak M.,University of Dundee | Hentati F.,Institute National Of Neurologie | Reith A.D.,Glaxosmithkline | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2010

LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2) is mutated in a significant number of Parkinson's disease patients. Since a common mutation that replaces Gly2019 with a serine residue enhances kinase catalytic activity, small-molecule LRRK2 inhibitors might have utility in treating Parkinson's disease. However, the effectiveness of inhibitors is difficult to assess, as no physiological substrates or downstream effectors have been identified that could be exploited to develop a robust cell-based assay. We recently established that LRRK2 bound 14-3-3 protein isoforms via its phosphorylation of Ser 910 and Ser935. In the present study we showthat treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells or lymphoblastoid cells derived from control or a Parkinson's disease patient harbouring a homozygous LRRK2(G2019S) mutation with two structurally unrelated inhibitors of LRRK2 (H-1152 or sunitinib) induced dephosphorylation of endogenous LRRK2 at Ser910 and Ser 935, thereby disrupting 14-3-3 interaction. Our results suggest that H-1152 and sunitinib induce dephosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser 935 by inhibiting LRRK2 kinase activity, as these compounds failed to induce significant dephosphorylation of a drug-resistant LRRK2(A2016T) mutant. Moreover, consistent with the finding that non-14-3-3-binding mutants of LRRK2 accumulated within discrete cytoplasmic pools resembling inclusion bodies, we observed that H-1152 causes LRRK2 to accumulate within inclusion bodies. These findings indicate that dephosphorylation of Ser910/Ser935, disruption of 14-3-3 binding and/or monitoring LRRK2 cytoplasmic localization can be used as an assay to assess the relative activity of LRRK2 inhibitors in vivo. These results will aid the elaboration and evaluation of LRRK2 inhibitors. They will also stimulate further research to understand howphosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 is controlled by LRRK2, and establish any relationship to development of Parkinson's disease. © The Authors.

Nishioka K.,Mayo Clinic Jacksonville | Vilarino-Guell C.,Mayo Clinic Jacksonville | Cobb S.A.,Mayo Clinic Jacksonville | Kachergus J.M.,Mayo Clinic Jacksonville | And 4 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2010

NADH dehydrogenase ubiquinone flavoprotein 2 (NDUFV2), encoding a subunit of mitochondrial complex I, is a candidate gene for several neuronal diseases; schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Parkinson disease (PD). We screened the entire coding region of NDUFV2 in 33 familial PD patients of North African Arab-Berber ethnicity in which all known genetic forms of PD had been excluded. We detected one novel substitution p.K209R (c.626A > G) in one PD proband. Segregation analysis within the family is inconclusive due to small sample size, but consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Subsequent screening of this mutation in ethnically matched sporadic PD patients (n =238) and controls (n =371) identified p.K209R in one additional patient. The clinical features of the mutation carriers revealed a mild form of parkinsonism with a prognosis similar to idiopathic PD. Our findings suggest further studies addressing the role of NDUFV2 variation in PD may be warranted. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dachsel J.C.,Mayo Medical School | Nishioka K.,Mayo Medical School | Vilarino-Guell C.,Mayo Medical School | Lincoln S.J.,Mayo Medical School | And 10 more authors.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development | Year: 2010

LRRK2 mutations are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism identified to date. A remarkable feature of this form of parkinsonism is the variable penetrance of symptom manifestation resulting in a wide range of age-at-onset in patients. Herein we use a functional approach to identify the Lrrk1 protein as a potential disease modifier demonstrating an interaction and heterodimer formation with Lrrk2. In addition, evaluation of LRRK1 variants in our large Lrrk2 p.G2019S-parkinsonism series from a Tunisian (n=145) identified a missense mutation (p.L416M) resulting in an average 6.2 years younger age at disease onset. In conclusion we show that the interaction of Lrrk1-Lrrk2 can form protein dimers and this interaction may influence the age of symptomatic manifestation in Lrrk2-parkinsonism patients. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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