Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec

Québec, Canada

Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec

Québec, Canada

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Tetreault L.-F.,University of Montréal | Doucet M.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Doucet M.,Laval University | Gamache P.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: Although it is well established that air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the link with new asthma onset in children is less clear. Objective: We assessed the association between the onset of childhood asthma with both time of birth and time-varying exposures to outdoor air pollutants. Method: An open cohort of children born in the province of Quebec, Canada, was created using linked medical-administrative databases. New cases of asthma were defined as one hospital discharge with a diagnosis of asthma or two physician claims for asthma within a 2 year period. Annual ozone (O3) levels were estimated at the child’s residence for all births 1999-2010, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels during 1996-2006 were estimated for births on the Montreal Island. Satellite based concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) were estimated at a 10 km × 10 km resolution and assigned to residential postal codes throughout the province (1996-2011). Hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed with Cox models for the exposure at the birth address and for the time-dependent exposure. We performed an indirect adjustment for secondhand smoke (SHS). Results: We followed 1,183,865 children (7,752,083 person-years), of whom 162,752 became asthmatic. After controlling for sex and material and social deprivation, HRs for an interquartile range increase in exposure at the birth address to NO2 (5.45 ppb), O3 (3.22 ppb), and PM2.5 (6.50 μg/m3) were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.12), and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.33), respectively. Effects of O3 and PM2.5 estimated with time-varying Cox models were similar to those estimated using exposure at birth, whereas the effect of NO2 was slightly stronger (HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09). Conclusions: Asthma onset in children appears to be associated with residential exposure to PM2.5, O3 and NO2. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.


Forde M.S.,St. George's University | Dewailly E.,Laval University | Dewailly E.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Robertson L.,St. George's University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2014

Maternal mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) blood concentrations were measured in a total of 442 samples taken from pregnant and delivering women in 10 Caribbean countries. Hg was detected in all 10 countries with the geometric mean ranging from a low of 0.83 μg L-1 (Jamaica) to a high of 3.13 μg L -1 (Grenada). When compared to comparable U.S. and Canadian data, Hg concentrations in Caribbean women are on average more than 2 times higher. With the exception of St. Kitts & Nevis, Pb was detected in at least one of the samples taken from the other 9 countries with two countries-Grenada and St. Vincent-having Pb detected in ≥60% of those sampled. In these two countries, the Pb concentrations ranged from a low of 1.17 μg dL-1 (Grenada) to a high of 1.98 μg dL-1 (St. Vincent). Compared to comparable U.S. and Canadian data, Pb concentrations in Caribbean women are generally higher than that measured in North America. This study confirms that neonates in the Caribbean are being exposed to both Hg and Pb and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic elements to ensure that they are reduced as far as possible. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Ngom R.,Geoimpacts Consulting | Gosselin P.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Gosselin P.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Blais C.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR) compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9%) than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Forde M.S.,St. George's University | Dewailly E.,Laval University | Dewailly E.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Robertson L.,St. George's University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96. pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4. pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country[U+05F3]s samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33. μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83. μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90. μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec, St. George's University and Laval University
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2014

Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 g/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 g/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 g/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.


PubMed | Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec and Geoimpacts Consulting
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2016

This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006-2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR) compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9%) than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location.


Mehiriz K.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Gosselin P.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. © 2016 Mehiriz, Gosselin.


PubMed | Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec and INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

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