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Ngom R.,Geoimpacts Consulting | Gosselin P.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Gosselin P.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Blais C.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR) compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9%) than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Forde M.S.,St. Georges University | Dewailly E.,Laval University | Dewailly E.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Robertson L.,St. Georges University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2014

Maternal mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) blood concentrations were measured in a total of 442 samples taken from pregnant and delivering women in 10 Caribbean countries. Hg was detected in all 10 countries with the geometric mean ranging from a low of 0.83 μg L-1 (Jamaica) to a high of 3.13 μg L -1 (Grenada). When compared to comparable U.S. and Canadian data, Hg concentrations in Caribbean women are on average more than 2 times higher. With the exception of St. Kitts & Nevis, Pb was detected in at least one of the samples taken from the other 9 countries with two countries-Grenada and St. Vincent-having Pb detected in ≥60% of those sampled. In these two countries, the Pb concentrations ranged from a low of 1.17 μg dL-1 (Grenada) to a high of 1.98 μg dL-1 (St. Vincent). Compared to comparable U.S. and Canadian data, Pb concentrations in Caribbean women are generally higher than that measured in North America. This study confirms that neonates in the Caribbean are being exposed to both Hg and Pb and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic elements to ensure that they are reduced as far as possible. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Forde M.S.,St. Georges University | Dewailly E.,Laval University | Dewailly E.,Institute National Of La Sante Publique Du Quebec | Robertson L.,St. Georges University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96. pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4. pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country[U+05F3]s samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33. μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83. μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90. μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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