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Faraj C.,Institute National dHygiene | Adlaoui E.B.,Institute National dHygiene | Ouahabi S.,Institute National dHygiene | Elkohli M.,Institute National dHygiene | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: In Morocco, the main strategies of leishmaniasis vector control are based on environmental modifications. Use of local residual indoor spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is often envisaged. The need to evaluate this control method is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an alphacypermethrin IRS program against leishmaniasis vectors in an endemic area in the north of Morocco. Methods. The survey was conducted in four neighbouring localities in three different districts in northern Morocco: Ait Chaib and Aichoun in Sefrou district, Bouassem (Boulmane) and Lmrouj (Taounate). Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin at a dose of 30 mg/m 2 was used in Ait Chaib and Lmrouj localities during 2010, 2011 and 2012, while localities of Aichoun and Bouassem were taken as control. In the four studied areas, sand flies were collected bimonthly from April to November in 2011 and 2012, using sticky traps, to determine their abundance and feeding pattern. Alphacypermethrin IRS were evaluated for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay test. Leishmaniasis incidence was estimated by passive and active case detection in each study area. Results: Significant reductions in leishmaniasis incidence and in gravidity rate were observed when comparing sprayed and unsprayed localities. The residual activity of alphacypermethrin at the concentration used lasted 10 weeks after spraying. However, the abundance of sand flies was not significantly affected by alphacypermethrin IRS. Conclusion: This study indicated that IRS has a significant impact on leishmaniasis transmission; therefore it could be recommended as an effective tool for leishmaniasis control in areas with high leishmaniasis transmission. © 2013 Faraj et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Faraj C.,Institute National dHygiene | Ouahabi S.,Institute National dHygiene | Adlaoui E.B.,Institute National dHygiene | El Elkohli M.,Institute National dHygiene | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted by Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. papatasi. Vector control is mainly based on environmental management but indoor residual spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is applied in many foci of Leishmania tropica. However, the levels and distribution of sandfly susceptibility to insecticides currently used has not been studied yet. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish the susceptibility status of Ph. sergenti and Ph. papatasi to lambdacyhalothrin, DDT and malathion. Methods. The insecticide susceptibility status of Ph. sergenti and Ph. papatasi was assessed during 2011, following the standard WHO technique based on discriminating dosage. A series of twenty-five susceptibility tests were carried out on wild populations of Ph. sergenti and Ph. papatasi collected by CDC light traps from seven villages in six different provinces. Knockdown rates (KDT) were noted at 5 min intervals during the exposure to DDT and to lambdacyhalothrin. After one hour of exposure, sandflies were transferred to the observation tubes for 24 hours. After this period, mortality rate was calculated. Data were analyzed by Probit analysis program to determine the knockdown time 50% and 90% (KDT50 and KDT90) values. Results: Study results showed that Ph.sergenti and Ph. papatasi were susceptible to all insecticides tested. Comparison of KDT values showed a clear difference between the insecticide knockdown effect in studied villages. This effect was lower in areas subject to high selective public health insecticide pressure in the framework of malaria or leishmaniasis control. Conclusion: Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. papatasi are susceptible to the insecticides tested in the seven studied villages but they showed a low knockdown effect in Azilal, Chichaoua and Settat. Therefore, a study of insecticide susceptibility of these vectors in other foci of leishmaniasis is recommended and the level of their susceptibility should be regularly monitored. © 2012 Faraj et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH-2009-4.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 6.63M | Year: 2010

Filarial infections remain a major public health problem in West and Central Africa. Three filarial species are involved: Onchocerca volvulus (onchocerciasis or river blindness); Wuchereria bancrofti (lymphatic filariasis); and Loa loa (the eye worm). Treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin has been successful in many situations but emergence of drug resistance and risk of severe adverse reactions associated with L loa co-infections is restricting the implementation of mass treatment and consequently alternate approaches to control are required. Studies with animal models have identified the general mechanisms of protective immunity while human studies have drawn attention to immune regulatory processes that influence clinical presentations Together, these observation provide a basis for vaccine development. The next challenge is to identify target antigens and ensure appropriate formulation and delivery to promote protective responses and avoid any pathology. This project aims to: 1, use transciptomics and bioinformatics to identify the parasite molecules that are targets of protective immunity and that may influence the regulation of such responses; and 2, microarray technologies and bioinformatics to determine the pathways that lead to expression of protective immunity. Cohorts of onchocerciasis patients who have received treatment with ivermectin or tetracycline, or are co infected with either W bancrofti or L loa provide both input to the pathway studies and a means of validation of the computer assimilations. Confirmation of the mechanisms and targets of protective immunity and validation of computer assimilations will also be investigated using the O ochengi-cattle model that also enables experimentation under natural challenge. Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice provides a robust and rapid validation of results obtained from computation relating to expression and regulation of protective responses and a primary system for screening vaccine candidates


Amro A.,University of Palestine | Hamdi S.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Lemrani M.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Mouna I.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Leishmania infantum causes Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco. It predominantly affects children under 5 years with incidence of 150 cases/year. Genetic variability and population structure have been investigated for 33 strains isolated from infected dogs and humans in Morocco. A multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) approach was used in which a MLMtype based on size variation in 14 independent microsatellite markers was compiled for each strain. MLMT profiles of 10 Tunisian, 10 Algerian and 21 European strains which belonged to zymodeme MON-1 and non-MON-1 according to multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) were included for comparison. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic analysis inferred two L.infantum sub-populations; Sub-population A consists of 13 Moroccan strains grouped with all European strains of MON-1 type; and sub-population B consists of 15 Moroccan strains grouped with the Tunisian and Algerian MON-1 strains. Theses sub-populations were significantly different from each other and from the Tunisian, Algerian and European non MON-1 strains which constructed one separate population. The presence of these two sub-populations co-existing in Moroccan endemics suggests multiple introduction of L. infantum from/to Morocco; (1) Introduction from/to the neighboring North African countries, (2) Introduction from/to the Europe. These scenarios are supported by the presence of sub-population B and sub-population A respectively. Gene flow was noticed between sub-populations A and B. Five strains showed mixed A/B genotypes indicating possible recombination between the two populations. MLMT has proven to be a powerful tool for eco-epidemiological and population genetic investigations of Leishmania. © 2013 Amro et al.


Laboudi M.,Institute National dHygiene | Faraj C.,Institute National dHygiene | Sadak A.,Mohammed V University | Harrat Z.,Institute Pasteur dAlgerie | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni is the only member of the Maculipennis Group known to occur in northern Africa; however, confusion exists as to the taxonomic status of its junior synonym, An. sicaulti Roubaud (type locality: near Rabat, Morocco). Based on morphological and behavioural distinctions, it has been suggested that Moroccan populations have been isolated from other North African populations by the Atlas Mountains, and that Moroccan populations may represent An. sicaulti, originally described as a variety of An. maculipennis Meigen. DNA barcodes (658. bp of the mitochondrial COI gene) obtained from 89 An. maculipennis s.l. collected in Morocco (n = 79) and Algeria (n = 10) in 2007 and 2008 were used to determine if Moroccan populations are genetically isolated from those east of the Atlas Mountains (Algeria), and whether there is molecular evidence to support the presence of more than one member of the Maculipennis Group in the region. No evidence for speciation was found between Moroccan and Algerian populations, or within populations in northern Morocco. Moreover shared COI haplotypes between Algeria and Morocco indicate ongoing gene flow between populations in these countries, suggesting that the Atlas Mountains are not a boundary to gene flow in An. labranchiae. The synonymy of An. sicaulti with An. labranchiae is confirmed. That An. labranchiae comprises the same species in these North African countries is important for malaria control. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | El Amri N.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

In Morocco, Culex pipiens plays a role in the high annoyance experienced by most urban cities, suburban and rural areas, especially since it was strongly suspected as the most likely vector in the transmission of West Nile virus epidemics that have hit Morocco in 1996. Chemical insecticides are generally the way in which they use the programs against harmful mosquitoes and disease vectors. However, the repeated and excessive use of these products regularly led to the emergence of the phenomenon of insect resistance. At the center of Morocco, information on the susceptibility or resistance to insecticides in mosquitoes (larvae and adults) vectors of diseases or pests, are almost nonexistent. This article reports the results of studies conducted between 2007 and 2010 with sensitivity tests WHO on larvae local populations of Culex pipiens collected in three lodging in the city of Fez, towards the insecticide mostly used by hygienic services: temephos. Five concentrations of insecticide (0.0025 mg/l, 0.005 mg/l, 0.0125 mg/l, 0.025 mg/l, 0.0625 mg/l) in addition to control, were used to determine the LC50 and LC 90 of Culex pipiens species towards temephos. Sensitivity tests were carried out at the entomology unit and monitoring of insect sensitivity towards insecticides installed at the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory Epidemiological and Environmental Hygiene (LRDEHM), Fez, under the Regional Directorate of Health in Fes Boulemane Region. The LC50 and LC90, concentrations corresponding to 50 and 90% mortality were determined graphically, by the linear relationship between the decimal logarithm of insecticide concentrations (x-axis) and the percentage of mortality transformed into probit values (ordinate) on logarithmic gausso paper. Resistance rates were determined on the basis of the sensitivity of a reference strain (S-Lab). The bioassay results affirmed the presence of resistance in larvae Culex pipiens towards temephos and that this species has also equally developed resistance levels similar and comparable in the three lodging studied, resistance rates recorded varying between 12.17 and 14.34. Facing such a situation, the surveillance of susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides used in mosquito control and anti-malarial fight has become imperative. This would undoubtedly allow a good management of the products available and consequently to adopt suitable measures for the best management of this resistance which must be an integral part of any program of vector control. © 2014 Springer-Verlag France.


Barakat A.,Institute National dHygiene | Ihazmad H.,Institute National dHygiene | Benkaroum S.,Institute National dHygiene | Cherkaoui I.,Institute National dHygiene | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: There is limited information about the epidemiology of influenza in Africa. We describe the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza in Morocco from 1996 to 2009 with particular emphasis on the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Successes and challenges of the enhanced surveillance system introduced in 2007 are also discussed. Methods: Virologic sentinel surveillance for influenza virus was initiated in Morocco in 1996 using a network of private practitioners that collected oro-pharyngeal and naso-pharyngeal swabs from outpatients presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI). The surveillance network expanded over the years to include inpatients presenting with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at hospitals and syndromic surveillance for ILI and acute respiratory infection (ARI). Respiratory samples and structured questionnaires were collected from eligible patients, and samples were tested by immunofluorescence assays and by viral isolation for influenza viruses. Results: We obtained a total of 6465 respiratory specimens during 1996 to 2009, of which, 3102 were collected during 2007-2009. Of those, 2249 (72%) were from patients with ILI, and 853 (27%) were from patients with SARI. Among the 3,102 patients, 98 (3%) had laboratory-confirmed influenza, of whom, 85 (87%) had ILI and 13 (13%) had SARI. Among ILI patients, the highest proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza occurred in children less than 5 years of age (3/169; 2% during 2007-2008 and 23/271; 9% during 2008-2009) and patients 25-59 years of age (8/440; 2% during 2007-2009 and 21/483; 4% during 2008-2009). All SARI patients with influenza were less than 14 years of age. During all surveillance years, influenza virus circulation was seasonal with peak circulation during the winter months of October through April. Conclusion: Influenza results in both mild and severe respiratory infections in Morocco, and accounted for a large proportion of all hospitalizations for severe respiratory illness among children 5 years of age and younger. © 2011 Barakat et al.


Leishmaniases in Morocco are endemic diseases. Three forms of leishmaniasis are reported, visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica and cutaneous lesions due to Leishmania major. Leishmania infantum, a common parasite inducing visceral leishmaniasis, was observed thereafter in cutaneous lesions. The first case of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.tropica was isolated since 1987. But, this parasite was shown to be more polymorphic with almost 8 zymodemes. However, these zymodemes are not all transmitted by Phlebotomus sergenti and not all isolated from human reservoir. Regarding the clinical aspect, cutaneous leishmaniasis with L. tropica is described as a single lesion starting as a nodule at the site of inoculation. A crust develops centrally which may fall away exposing an ulcer which heals gradually. The second cutaneous form is that caused by Leishmania major. It was known in villages located in the southern slopes of the Atlas Mountains. Clinically, the lesion is often severely inflamed and ulcerated and heals in 4-6 months. The epidemiologic cycle of this rural form, include Phlebotomus papatasi as the proven vector and a commensally rodent, Meriones shawi grandis as the reservoir. However, visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco has been known since 1921. It is especially located in the North. The responsible parasite is L. infantum MON 1. Two species of the sand fly are involved in the transmission of this form, P. ariasi and P. perniciosus. In infected man, the clinical signs are non-tender splenomegaly, with or without hepatomegaly, wasting and pallor of mucous membranes. Even though L. infantum MON1 is responsible of the disease, some canine cases were reported to be caused by Leishmania tropica. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Benamar T.,Institute National Dhygiene
Reviews in Medical Microbiology | Year: 2016

The molecular characterization of measles is essential in a context of elimination. Indeed, it allows identifying the origin and transmission pathways to establish or reject the connections between cases and outbreaks, to observe the evolution of circulating strains and differentiate between indigenous strains, strains imported, or vaccine strains. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the measles virus is an essential element for the documentation of the interruption of endemic transmission.The introduction of the measles molecular surveillance in Morocco has shown significant changes over time, including the disappearance of some genotypes and the emergence of new ones. This review aims to overview this evolution, between 1998 and 2015, with regard to the measles control/elimination strategy in Morocco. This analysis reveals the direct impact of the immunization activities undertaken in Morocco on the circulating genotypes. However, a well performing surveillance system providing comprehensive epidemiological data is needed to complement the contribution of the genetic characterization. Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Zakham F.,Institute National dHygiene
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) | Year: 2012

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, devastating and contagious disease, which infects third of the global population worldwide with high rates of incidence in the developing countries, where the health care providers face a serious problem and a real challenge during their clinical practice for controlling and preventing the transmission of this illness. Indeed the first step of control is the correct diagnosis and the initiation of the drug treatment regimen at the early stage of infection, which mandate the rapidity of screening and the accuracy of laboratory testing. In this paper we aim to highlight the different actual techniques, regarding the rapid screening and diagnosis of tuberculosis.

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