Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap

Rabat, Morocco

Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap

Rabat, Morocco
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Dikrallah A.,Mohammed V University | Kabouchi B.,Mohammed V University | Hakam A.,Mohammed V University | Brancheriau L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 2 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Mecanique | Year: 2010

An experimental approach was used to model stress wave propagation in green wood (Douglas fir). Based on the assumption that wood is an orthotropic material, the stress wave velocity through the cross section was calculated using plane strain motion equations. The experiments were carried out in two steps under axial restraint, while the wave propagation time was measured on discs and bars sliced from the discs. Mechanical and physical properties were determined in free vibration. The results showed a significant difference in propagation velocity between waves propagating throughout the whole disc volume and guided waves in bars. The acoustic anisotropy of green wood is discussed and the stress wave form simulation is presented. Good agreement between the simulation and experimental results was obtained. © 2010 Académie des sciences.


El Mouridi M.,Montpellier University | El Mouridi M.,Mohammed V University | Laurent T.,Montpellier University | Kabouchi B.,Mohammed V University | And 5 more authors.
Physical and Chemical News | Year: 2011

This work is an original contribution to the study of density and drying shrinkage of the root burl wood of thuja (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters) coming from the forest of Khemisset (Morocco). The density is often used for prediction of mechanical properties of wood. As for the linear shrinkage, the degree of anisotropy between the radial, tangential and longitudinal shrinkage prefigure mechanical behaviour of wood. The measurements of these physical properties were performed on 77 samples (2×2×2cm3) cut according to radial, tangential and longitudinal directions. The analysis of density measurements allows to classify the wood of the root burl of thuja as a dense wood. The density of the root burl wood is higher than that of the thuja wood. This difference is explained by the presence of dark growths composed of cells with thicker walls than those of the thuja wood. The analysis of shrinkage measurements show a small anisotropy, explained in the microscopic scale by a very variable orientation of cells in a reference plan. This result presupposes a mechanical behaviour close to isotropic for the wood of the root burl of thuja.


Sens X.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Oujaa A.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap | Grimaud-Herve D.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Zazzo A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

Within the framework of the Mission Archéologique El Harhoura-Témara, M'Tsogatin 1 cave was discovered during a field survey with two aims: 1) the litologic study of mineral resources used in the prehistoric sites from the northwestern coastal Meseta and the research of human settlement evidences. Three test pits were realized in M'Tsogatin 1 cave. The L14 test pit delivered lithic industry, fauna and 230 human remains. Three stratigraphical levels were distinghished: the level 1 (dated by 14C of 4943-4795 cal BC on human collagen) and the level 2 contain neolithic artifacts, but seem to be heavily perturbed. The level 3 was attributed to the Upper Palaeolithic according to the lithic industry. Within the same level, despite the highly fragmentation of the human bones, the biometric study demonstrates that they fit into the variability of Iberomaurusian individuals. Whereas the human remains of the levels 1 and 2 do not fit into the variability of the neolithic human bones of the Maghreb. Cutmaks and burned bones observed of the level 3 are comparable with some of the funeral behaviors described in Taforalt and Afalou-Bou-Rhummel during the Iberomaurusian. For the first time in Morocco, the evulsion of the lower central incisors was highlighted on a mandible of the level 3. This echoes iberomaurusian and capsian behaviors known in Algeria and in Tunisia.


Campmas E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Michel P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Costamagno S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Amani F.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2015

The influence of climate change on human settlements in coastal areas is a central question for archaeologists. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the Témara region in Morocco. The study area was selected for two main reasons. First, it contains numerous caves with Upper Pleistocene deposits, which have yielded remains of anatomically modern humans in association with Aterian and Iberomaurusian artifacts. Second, these caves are currently located on the shore, thus this region is particularly sensitive to major climate change and sea level fluctuations. Diachronic taphonomic study of faunal remains from two sites in the region, El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, shows alternating human/non-human predator occupations. The lower layers of El Mnasra Cave dating to Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 5 have yielded diverse ungulate remains with significant anthropogenic impact marks, together with numerous mollusk shells, Nassarius shell beads, hearths, lithics, some bone tools and used pigments. Faunal remains from the upper layers dating to OIS 4, 3 and 2 of El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, largely dominated by gazelles, provide evidence of carnivore activities, such as tooth marks, numerous semi-digested bones and coprolites alongside some anthropogenic signatures (cut marks and burnt bones). Non-human predators appear to be the main agents responsible for faunal modifications and accumulations. The 'non-intensive' nature of human occupation is confirmed by analyses of the lithic industry at El Harhoura 2. The 'intensive' human occupations date to OIS 5 and could have taken place during wet periods in connection with high sea levels, which allowed the exploitation of shellfish in this area. 'Non-intensive' human occupations generally correspond to arid periods and lower sea levels, during which the Témara area was further inland and may have been less attractive to humans. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | French Natural History Museum, CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute, French National Center for Scientific Research and Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap
Type: | Journal: Journal of human evolution | Year: 2014

The influence of climate change on human settlements in coastal areas is a central question for archaeologists. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the Tmara region in Morocco. The study area was selected for two main reasons. First, it contains numerous caves with Upper Pleistocene deposits, which have yielded remains of anatomically modern humans in association with Aterian and Iberomaurusian artifacts. Second, these caves are currently located on the shore, thus this region is particularly sensitive to major climate change and sea level fluctuations. Diachronic taphonomic study of faunal remains from two sites in the region, El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, shows alternating human/non-human predator occupations. The lower layers of El Mnasra Cave dating to Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 5 have yielded diverse ungulate remains with significant anthropogenic impact marks, together with numerous mollusk shells, Nassarius shell beads, hearths, lithics, some bone tools and used pigments. Faunal remains from the upper layers dating to OIS 4, 3 and 2 of El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, largely dominated by gazelles, provide evidence of carnivore activities, such as tooth marks, numerous semi-digested bones and coprolites alongside some anthropogenic signatures (cut marks and burnt bones). Non-human predators appear to be the main agents responsible for faunal modifications and accumulations. The non-intensive nature of human occupation is confirmed by analyses of the lithic industry at El Harhoura 2. The intensive human occupations date to OIS 5 and could have taken place during wet periods in connection with high sea levels, which allowed the exploitation of shellfish in this area. Non-intensive human occupations generally correspond to arid periods and lower sea levels, during which the Tmara area was further inland and may have been less attractive to humans.


Hutterer R.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Mikdad A.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap | Ripken T.E.J.,Prinses Margrietlaan 11
Archiv fur Molluskenkunde | Year: 2011

Terrestrial gastropods from Epipalaeolithic and Early Neolithic levels of the archaeological site Taghit Haddouch (NE Marocco) were studied. A total of 416 shells were recovered from 8 successive levels dating from calendar ages 4.898 ± 45 calBP (level 1) to 9.717 ± 105 calBP (level 8). Five species were found in the archaeological context: Otala punctata, Otala tigri, Alabastrina soluta, Sphincterochila maroccana, and Cernuella globuloidea. No significant size differences of shells were found within the 5.000 years sequence, but relative frequency of species changed drastically within the sequence. Sphincterochila maroccana prevailed in the older levels 8 to 4 but was replaced by Otala spp. in the upper levels 3 to 1. This faunal change reflects the onset of a pluvial phase around 8.000 years calBP. Shells of Otala tigi from levels 4 to 1 frequently show signs of intentional perforation, with an increase in abundance in the uppermost levels. Two types of perforation, puncture and slot, are interpreted as part of the preparation of the snail for consumption. The significance of the technique is unknown but it was probably an invention of an Early Neolithic population in the eastern Rif. © E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller), 2011.


Ewague A.,CNRS Georesources lab | El Graoui M.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap | Boumaggard E.H.,CNRS Georesources lab
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

The rock art site of Ifgane, on the west of the Yagour plateau, was discovered by Simoneau and reported with a photograph in his inventory (1). In 1999, 23 engravings were published by Rodrigue, who considered the site to be an isolated ensemble. Recent campaigns between 2007 and 2012 have led to the discovery of 201 new engravings. These new discoveries have enriched the iconography of the Yagour and have provided new elements for the interpretation of this art and the relationship between the High Atlas and the Saharan regions. The themes engraved at Ifgane are common to those of the Yagour plateau. However, cattle are superior in quantity to representations of metallic weapons. Some cattle images similar to those in the Saharan regions doubtless indicate a connection between the High Atlas and the southern regions. A frise associating anthropomorphs and rhinoceros can be interpreted as a scene linking animal sexuality and human sexuality. It shows a new approach to the relationship between the Men of the High Atlas and the large wild fauna.


Bartz M.,University of Cologne | Klasen N.,University of Cologne | Zander A.,University of Cologne | Brill D.,University of Cologne | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2015

The prehistoric site of Ifri n'Ammar is situated in northeastern Morocco, in the northern prolongation of the Middle Atlas Mountains. It is a key location in unravelling the history of anatomically modern humans (AMH) in northern Africa as it reveals Middle and Late Palaeolithic occupation phases since ~170ka. Whilst the archaeological sequence within the rock shelter has been well studied, the timing of landscape dynamics around Ifri n'Ammar is still poorly understood. This study therefore aims to establish a detailed chronology of the Wadi Selloum profile at the apron of the shelter, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of ephemeral stream deposits. Coarse-grain quartz was used for single-grain and multiple-grain dating procedures to investigate the luminescence properties of these deposits and to get more accurate age information concerning the phases of human occupation. Continuous wave OSL (CW-OSL) revealed a dominant fast component for all quartz samples. The dose distribution of the uppermost samples showed overdispersion values >25% and significant positive skewness. We identified partial bleaching as the main source of scatter in the equivalent dose (De) distribution. The lowermost sample appeared to be close to signal saturation. The shapes of the dose response curve varied widely between aliquots and coarse quartz grains exhibited therefore very different dose saturation behaviours among aliquots. With fully saturated dose response curves (DRCs), meaningful D0 values were assumed for De estimation.The eight OSL samples yielded stratigraphically consistent ages ranging from 1.3 ± 0.2. ka to 76 ± 5. ka, thus reaching the Middle Palaeolithic period. Moreover, a pottery shard dated to 7.4 ± 0.6. ka (Early Neolithic period) by thermoluminescence (TL), perfectly matched the Holocene OSL samples extracted at the same depth of the profile. In summary, our results point to fluvial aggradation during OIS 5.1, the late glacial period, and the Holocene. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Hutterer R.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Linstadter J.,University of Cologne | Eiwanger J.,Kommission For Archaologie Aussereuropaischer Kulturen Des Deutschen Archaologischen Institute | Mikdad A.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Shells of terrestrial gastropods (Helicidae, Sphincterochilidae) are common in rock shelter sediments and open-air sites of Iberomaurusian to Neolithic age in NE Morocco. Excavations at numerous sites in the eastern Rif yielded new sites with a rich record of well-preserved terrestrial gastropods, among which species of the genera Otala, Sphincterochila and Alabastrina dominate. In sites with sediments younger than 7500calBP, such as Taghit Haddouch, Hassi Ouenzga, Ifri Oudadane, Ifri Armas and Mtlili, a high percentage of shells were perforated in a regular manner. Narrow slots or squarish holes of a few millimetres width cut into the second or third whorl are regularly found in an apical position of the shell. We interpret these as evidence of human manipulation of the shell in order to facilitate consumption of the snail body. We discuss these new findings in the context of the settlement of this part of North Africa by different cultural groups. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Ben-Ncer A.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap | Ben-Ncer A.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Bokbot Y.,Institute National Des Science Of Larcheologie Et Du Patrimoine Insap
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

The systematic surveys, under the research program of INSAP "Paleoanthropology and tumuli of the corridor of Taza and Guercif plain", conducted in the last 10 km of the right bank of Wadi Melloulou, have been successful about tumuli. Of these, the 3 tumuli composing the complex III takes a considerable interest because they show a variety of functioning of them sepulchral deposit. In this context, the tumulus 2 is distinguished by the complexity of his deposit. Indeed, it is a partial and secondary collective burial wearing on at least five (5) subjects: two adults, a teenager and two children. Some of the skeletal remains show traces of fire, which therefore demonstrates the possible practice of cremation. It should be also noted the existence of specific arrangements for the cranial bones and some limb bones. Chronologically, this sepulchral deposit could not be directly dated. However, radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), applied on bone from the tumulus 3 of the same complex, allowed to credit this monument of a calibrated age between 344 and 530 AD. Contemporaneity between the two tumulus is likely.

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