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Agbobatinkpo P.B.,University Abomey Calavi | Agbobatinkpo P.B.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin | Thorsen L.,Copenhagen University | Nielsen D.S.,Copenhagen University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yehouenou A. Pazou E.,University Abomey Calavi | Azehoun J.P.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin | Aleodjrodo P.E.,University Abomey Calavi | Van Straalen N.M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

To determine possible human and environmental health risks, organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in vegetables grown in floodplains along the Ouémé River near Lowé in Bénin. Testing of vegetables found 13 pesticides with ΣDDT, α-endosulfan, Σdrin, and lindane being most important. The same pesticides were also detected in plants eaten by bovine cattle, sheep, and herbivorous fish. Human pesticide intake by vegetable consumption was compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values reported by the World Health Organization. Pesticide intake by fish consumption was estimated from residue levels in whole fish collected from the Ouémé River in 2004 and reported earlier. Fish consumption does not pose a risk for human health, but consuming vegetables that contain pesticide residues may lead to exceedance of TDI values. Based on these findings, concerns are warranted, and more work is needed to understand the full exposure profile for the local population. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Dussert S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Guerin C.,PalmElit | Andersson M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Joet T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 7 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Sodjinou E.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin
Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies.

Menkir A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Adetimirin V.O.,University of Ibadan | Yallou C.G.,Institute National des Recherches Agricoles du Benin | Gedil M.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture
Crop Science | Year: 2010

Striga hermonthica causes significant yield loss in maize (Zea mays L.) and other cereals. Lim-ited studies have been conducted to determine the relationship between marker-based genetic distance among maize inbred lines expressing varying levels of field resistance to S. hermonthica and the reaction patterns of the resulting crosses to S. hermonthica. Forty-five diallel crosses of 10 parental lines were evaluated with and without S. hermonthica infestation at two locations each in Benin Republic and Nigeria for 3 yr. Canonical discriminant analysis using nine traits separated the crosses into three distinct groups in each country depending on doses of resistance obtained from their parental lines. Hybrids formed from two resistant parents had the highest levels of resistance, while those formed from two susceptible parents exhibited the lowest levels of resistance to S. hermonthica. Crosses that involved one resistant line as a parent showed intermediate levels of field resistance to S. hermonthica. Assessment of genetic divergence among the 10 parental lines using 18 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations generated a total of 1176 polymorphic AFLP fragments. The genetic distance (GD) estimates among all pairs of parental lines varied from 0.44 to 0.93, with an average of 0.63 ±0.023. The correlation between the AFLP-based GD estimates of parental lines and the means observed in diallel crosses under S. hermonthica infestation were not significant for grain yield and other traits. Some hybrids formed from inbred lines with GD estimates both below and above 0.50 exhibited good performance under S. hermonthica infestation. The observed broad range of genetic divergence detected with AFLP markers indicates the presence of a significant reservoir of diversity among resistant lines that can be exploited in breeding. © Crop Science Society of America.

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