Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie

Tunis, Tunisia

Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie

Tunis, Tunisia
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Aloui-Bejaoui N.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Afli A.,Institute National Des Science Et Technologies Of La Mer
Mediterranean Marine Science | Year: 2012

The harbour area of Sidi Youssef in Kerkennah islands is characterized by specific anthropogenic pressures linked to fishing activities. To study the functional diversity of benthic macro-invertebrates, 10 stations located around the port and along the ship canal were sampled by SCUBA diving. Collected invertebrates were identified, counted and preserved. For the functional organization of the community, the most common biodiversity indices and functional groups were assessed at each station, and main physical and chemical parameters were measured. Results showed that the main apparent anthropogenic stress, that could lead to negative impacts on the studied area, was related to dredging/harbour activities. Suspension feeders, consisting essentially of polychaetes, which may be disturbed by water turbidity, dominated the stations farthest from the port, where the intensity of harbour activities is obviously reduced. On the contrary, carnivores dominated inside the port, possibly benefiting from fish-scraps discarded at the area, while stations close to the port appeared to be more balanced trophically. The applied biotic indices showed that the area is in good ecological status, except of the navigation channel and the port entrance, which were slightly degraded.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-4-05 | Award Amount: 2.64M | Year: 2010

The overall objective of the SUSTAINMED project is to examine and assess the impacts of EU and national agricultural, rural, environmental and trade policies in the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs). Specific impacts include socio-economic structural changes, income distribution, resource management, trade liberalisation, poverty alleviation, employment and migrations trends, as well as commercial relations with major trade partners (in particular the EU) and competitiveness in international markets. The project will integrate a wide range of complementary methods and analytical tools including quantitative modelling, structured surveying, indicator building and qualitative data analysis, in order to provide (i) orders of magnitude of the impact in MPCs related to changes in important policy parameters, and (ii) qualitative insights into processes which will be important for the future welfare of MPCs but which cannot be fully captured by quantitative indicators. The project results will enable the EU Commission and relevant stakeholders to formulate realistic policies and action plans aimed at supporting sustainable agri-food systems, rural development programmes and capacity building in the Mediterranean region. The project outcomes will also contribute to improve collaboration and economic and commercial relations between the EU and target MPCs, in line with the stated goals of the Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the project will provide relevant research to support the promotion of sustainable development to fulfilling the EUs commitment towards the United Nation Millennium Development Goals in the region. The project consortium brings together during three years recognised researchers from six EU Member countries, one Associate country and five Mediterranean Partner countries, with a strong scientific background and experience in Mediterranean policy, market and institutional analysis.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2010

The WASSERMed project will analyse, in a multi-disciplinary way, ongoing and future climate induced changes in hydrological budgets and extremes in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East under the frame of threats to national and human security. A climatic and hydrological component directly addresses the reduction of uncertainty and quantification of risk. This component will provide an interface to other climatologic projects and models, producing climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, with special emphasis on precipitation. Five case studies will be considered: 1) Syros Island (Greece), 2) Sardinia Island (Italy), 3) Merguellil watershed (Tunisia), 4) Jordan river basin, and 5) the Nile River system (Egypt). The case studies are illustrative and represent situations which deserve special attention, due to their relevance to national and human security. Furthermore, impacts on key strategic sectors, such as agriculture and tourism, will be considered, as well as macroeconomic implications of water availability in terms of regional income, consumption, investment, trade flows, industrial structure and competitiveness. WASSERMed is an interdisciplinary project, which overall aims at all three targets of the call, through the integration of climate change scenarios, holistic water system modelling and interdisciplinary impact assessment, with three main contributions: a) Integration of climate change scenarios, holistic water system modelling. This provides results for reduction of uncertainties of climate change impacts on hydrology in the identified regions; b) Interdisciplinary approach, coupling macroeconomic implications and technical indicators. This provides a better assessment of climate effects to water resources, water uses and expected security risks; c) Proposal of specific adaptation measures for key sectors of the Mediterranean economy. This provides better basis for achieving water security.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: OCEAN.2011-4 | Award Amount: 11.32M | Year: 2012

Environmental policies focus on protecting habitats valuable for their biodiversity, as well as producing energy in cleaner ways. The establishment of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks and installing Offshore Wind Farms (OWF) are important ways to achieve these goals. The protection and management of marine biodiversity has focused on placing MPAs in areas important for biodiversity. This has proved successful within the MPAs, but had little impact beyond their boundaries. In the highly populated Mediterranean and the Black Seas, bordered by many range states, the declaration of extensive MPAs is unlikely at present, so limiting the bearing of protection. The establishment of MPAs networks can cope with this obstacle but, to be effective, such networks must be based on solid scientific knowledge and properly managed (not merely paper parks). OWF, meanwhile, must be placed where the winds are suitable for producing power, but they should not have any significant impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, or on human activities. The project will have two main themes: 1 - identify prospective networks of existing or potential MPAs in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas, shifting from a local perspective (centred on single MPAs) to the regional level (network of MPAs) and finally the basin scale (network of networks). The identification of the physical and biological connections among MPAs will elucidate the patterns and processes of biodiversity distribution. Measures to improve protection schemes will be suggested, based on maintaining effective exchanges (biological and hydrological) between protected areas. The national coastal focus of existing MPAs will be widened to both off shore and deep sea habitats, incorporating them into the networks through examination of current legislation, to find legal solutions to set up transboundary MPAs. 2 - explore where OWF might be established, producing an enriched wind atlas both for the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. OWF locations will avoid too sensitive habitats but the possibility for them to act as stepping-stones through MPAs, without interfering much with human activities, will be evaluated. Socioeconomic studies employing ecosystem services valuation methods to develop sustainable approaches for both MPA and OWF development will also be carried out, to complement the ecological and technological parts of the project, so as to provide guidelines to design, manage and monitor networks of MPAs and OWF. Two pilot projects (one in the Mediterranean Sea and one in the Black Sea) will test in the field the assumptions of theoretical approaches, based on previous knowledge, to find emerging properties in what we already know, in the light of the needs of the project. The project covers many countries and involves researchers across a vast array of subjects, in order to achieve a much-needed holistic approach to environmental protection. It will help to integrate the Mediterranean and Black Seas scientific communities through intense collective activities, combined with strong communications with stakeholders and the public at large. Consequently, the project will create a permanent network of excellent researchers (with cross fertilization and further capacity building) that will also work together also in the future, making their expertise available to their countries and to the European Union.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2013.10.3 | Award Amount: 891.50K | Year: 2014

The MOSAIC project aims to foster R&D cooperation between Europe and Mediterranean Partner Countries under European and third country programmes. MOSAIC focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and how ICT can support common EU-MED societal challenges among which Health and wellbeing, Food and agriculture, Clean Energy, Green Integrated Transport and Risk Management for critical issues such as Climate Action and Secure Societies.\n\nIn order to strengthen cooperation between EU-MED stakeholders MOSAIC will set-up sustainable mechanisms between European organisations and Mediterranean organisations, MOSAIC proposes the creation of 2 Technology Platforms (TPs):\n\tMED-TP1 covering Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya).\n\tMED-TP2 covering Mashriq countries (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian administrated areas, Syria Arab Republic Syria).\nMOSAIC will also support the dialogue between MED-TPs and existing European Technology Platforms (ETPs) for those topics to:\n\tAnalyze potential areas of cooperation between Europe and MED countries around the thematic area of ICT and applications of ICT to Societal challenges.\n\tIdentify key stakeholders to launch and run TPs in MED countries including representatives from industrial (large companies and SMEs) and academic sectors.\n\tPromote and support the creation of TPs in MED countries, including the production of both organizational documents (governance, structure, etc.) and technical documents (Vision, Strategic Research Agenda), as tools to set up sustainable scientific cooperation with Europe.\n\tCreate a Global Strategy for EU-MED cooperation in the field of ICT and ICT applications to Societal challenges.\n\tLiaise MED-TPs with European counterparts, and contribute to update the European International Cooperation strategy.\n\tIncrease awareness on the potentialities for cooperation between Europe and MED countries in the fields of ICT and ICT applications to Societal challenges.

Ben Rais Lasram F.,Montpellier University | Ben Rais Lasram F.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Guilhaumon F.,Montpellier University | Albouy C.,Montpellier University | And 3 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot of biodiversity, and climate warming is expected to have a significant influence on its endemic fish species. However, no previous studies have predicted whether fish species will experience geographic range extensions or contractions as a consequence of warming. Here, we projected the potential future climatic niches of 75 Mediterranean Sea endemic fish species based on a global warming scenario implemented with the Mediterranean model OPAMED8 and a multimodel inference, which included uncertainty. By 2070-2099, the average surface temperature of the Mediterranean Sea was projected to warm by 3.1°C. Projections for 2041-2060 are that 25 species would qualify for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List, and six species would become extinct. By 2070-2099, 45 species were expected to qualify for the IUCN Red List whereas 14 were expected to become extinct. By the middle of the 21st century, the coldest areas of the Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Lion) would act as a refuge for cold-water species, but by the end of the century, those areas were projected to become a 'cul-de-sac' that would drive those species towards extinction. In addition, the range size of endemic species was projected to undergo extensive fragmentation, which is a potentially aggravating factor. Since a majority of endemic fishes are specialists, regarding substratum and diet, we may expect a reduced ability to track projected climatic niches. As a whole, 25% of the Mediterranean Sea continental shelf was predicted to experience a total modification of endemic species assemblages by the end of the 21st century. This expected turnover rate could be mitigated by marine protected areas or accelerated by fishing pressure or competition from exotic fishes. It remains a challenge to predict how these assemblage modifications might affect ecosystem function. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sameh H.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique | Wafa E.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique | Sihem B.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Fernando L.-C.,University of Bordeaux 1
Langmuir | Year: 2012

Double emulsions of the W/O/W type are compartmented materials suitable for encapsulation and sustained release of hydrophilic compounds. Initially, the inner aqueous droplets contain an encapsulated compound (EC), and the external phase comprises an osmotic regulator (OR). Over time, water and the solutes dissolved in it tend to be transferred from one aqueous compartment to the other across the oil phase. Water transfer being by far the fastest process, osmotic equilibration of two compartments is permanently ensured. Since the transport of the EC and OR generally occurs at dissimilar rates, the osmotic regulation process provokes a continuous flux of water that modifies the inner and outer volumes. We fabricated W/O/W emulsions stabilized by a couple of amphiphilic polymers, and we measured the inward and outward diffusion kinetics of the solutes. The phenomenology was explored by varying the chemical nature of the OR while keeping the same EC or vice versa. Microscope observations revealed different evolution scenarios, depending on the relative rates of transfer of the EC and OR. Structural evolution was mainly determined by the permeation ratio between the EC and the OR, irrespective of their chemical nature. In particular, a regime leading to droplet emptying was identified. In all cases, evolution was due to diffusion/permeation phenomena and coalescence was marginal. Results were discussed within the frame of a simple mean-field model taking into account the diffusive transfer of the solutes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Kerrou J.,University of Neuchatel | Renard P.,University of Neuchatel | Tarhouni J.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2010

The Korba aquifer is located in the east of the Cape Bon peninsula in Tunisia. A large groundwater depression has been created in the central part of the aquifer since the 1980s, due to intense groundwater pumping for irrigation. The data collected show that the situation continues to deteriorate. Consequently, seawater is continuing to invade a large part of the aquifer. To better understand the situation and try to forecast its evolution, a three-dimensional (3D) transient density-dependent groundwater model has been developed. The model building process was difficult because of data required on groundwater discharge from thousands of unmonitored private wells. To circumvent that difficulty, indirect exhaustive information including remote sensing data and the physical parameters of the aquifer have been used in a multi-linear regression framework. The resulting 3D model shows that the aquifer is over-exploited. It also shows that after 50 years of exploitation, the time needed to turn back to the natural situation would be about 150 years if the authorities would ban all exploitation now. Such an asymmetry in the time scales required to contaminate or remediate an aquifer is an important characteristic of coastal aquifers that must be taken into account in their management. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Mabrouk H.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2014

Aim : To evaluate the usability of various plant water potentials in table grape irrigation management under a semiarid climate. Methods and results: Two water regimes were set up. The « control » water regime was the one usually used in the vineyard. The « 50 % Irrigation » water regime delivered only half the quantity of water to the vines. Predawn leaf (ψ L PD), predawn stem (ψ S PD), midday leaf (ψ L M), and midday stem (ψ S M) water potentials were measured during the growing season. The results show that the four water potentials can accurately measure the vine water status in table grape vineyard at a daily and seasonal time scale. But, ψ L M appeared to be the most reliable indicator to differentiate between the two water regimes with a frequency of 73 %. The « 50 % Irrigation » water regime induced in the Italia cultivar an anisohydric behavior and a decrease of 29.4 % in vine vigor and 11.5 % in berry weight. Under the Tunisian climate, Italia cultivar may exhibit night time transpiration that decreases ψ LPD by 19.5 %. Conclusion : Preliminary minimum ψ L M threshold to produce high quality table grape would be -0.8 and -1.1 MPa for pre- and post-veraison, respectively. © 2014 Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).

Zghibi A.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Zouhri L.,Polytechnic Institute of LaSalle Beauvais | Tarhouni J.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2011

This article studies the effect of drought and pumping discharge on groundwater supplies and marine intrusion in the Korba aquifer (Cap-Bon peninsula, Tunisia). The Groundwater Modelling System has been used to model the groundwater flow and to simulate the seawater intrusion. The calibration is based on the groundwater levels in the steady state from 1963, and in the transient state from the groundwater levels from 1963 to 2005. The main objective is to quantify the components of the groundwater mass balance and to estimate the hydraulic conductivity distribution. The impact of pumping discharge on the groundwater level evolution has been examined by two pumping scenarios P1 (no. 8420) and P2 (no. 8862) wells. The hydrodynamic modelling shows the increasing drawdowns after 14 years of pumping: 4 m in P1 well and about 5 m in P2 well below sea level. The drawdowns are accompanied by the inverse hydraulic gradient. The numerical model was used to discuss the management of the groundwater resources of Cap-Bon. As the population continues to grow and the demand for groundwater pumping intensifies beyond the 1963 level, it can be expected that the actual extent of seawater intrusion in the future would be more severe than the model prediction. Better strategies for groundwater development and management will be necessary to protect the freshwater aquifers to the marine intrusion. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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