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Fu M.,Institute Catala dOncologia ICO | Fu M.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Fu M.,University of Barcelona | Martinez-sanchez J.M.,Institute Catala dOncologia ICO | And 11 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: The time to first cigarette smoked after waking up appears to be a good predictor of plasma and urine cotinine levels; however, collection of blood and urine is difficult in population-based studies and may influence participation. We aimed to test whether time to first cigarette is associated with salivary cotinine. Methods: We used data from a cross-sectional study on a representative sample of the general population of Barcelona, Spain. We gathered information on smoking by means of a questionnaire and collected saliva for cotinine analysis. Of 1,245 participants, 22.9% were daily smokers, and the final sample for analysis consisted of 210 daily smokers. Results: There were significant associations between salivary cotinine and time to first cigarette, between cigarette consumption and time to first cigarette, and between salivary cotinine and cigarette consumption. Salivary cotinine had decreased as time to first cigarette increased. After adjusting for cigarette consumption and sex, there were significant differences in mean salivary cotinine according to time to first cigarette (≤5 min: 219.2 ng/ml; 6-30 min: 175.8 ng/ml; 31-60 min: 168.5 ng/ml; >60 min: 137.2 ng/ml). All paired comparisons were significant (p < .001) except in the 6- to 30-min group versus the 31- to 60-min group (p = .701). Conclusions: After adjustment for the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24 hr, time to first cigarette is associated with salivary cotinine concentration. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source


Fonseca F.,Institute Of Neuropsiquiatria I Addiccions | Fonseca F.,University Pompeu Fabra | Fonseca F.,Institute Municipal dInvestigacio Medica IMIM Hospital del Mar Research Institute | de la Torre R.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Although the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in opioid dependence disorder has been well established, the influence of methadone pharmacokinetics in dose requirement and clinical outcome remains controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze methadone dosage in responder and nonresponder patients considering pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic factors that may contribute to dosage adequacy. Opioid dependence patients (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, [4th Edition] criteria) from a MMT community program were recruited. Patients were clinically assessed and blood samples were obtained to determine plasma concentrations of (R,S)-, (R) and (S)- methadone and to study allelic variants of genes encoding CYP3A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and P-glycoprotein. Responders and nonresponders were defined by illicit opioid consumption detected in random urinalysis. The final sample consisted in 105 opioid dependent patients of Caucasian origin. Responder patients received higher doses of methadone and have been included into treatment for a longer period. No differences were found in terms of genotype frequencies between groups. Only CYP2D6 metabolizing phenotype differences were found in outcome status, methadone dose requirements, and plasma concentrations, being higher in the ultrarapid metabolizers. No other differences were found between phenotype and responder status, methadone dose requirements, neither in methadone plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic factors could explain some but not all differences in MMT outcome and methadone dose requirements. © 2011 Fonseca et al. Source

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