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Czachorowski M.J.,Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group | Amaral A.F.S.,Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group | Montes-Moreno S.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Lloreta J.,Institute Municipal dInvestigacio Medica Hospital Del Mar | And 7 more authors.

Aberrant overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is observed in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Studies evaluating COX2 as a prognostic marker in UCB report contradictory results. We determined the prognostic potential of COX2 expression in UCB and quantitatively summarize the results with those of the literature through a meta-analysis. Newly diagnosed UCB patients recruited between 1998-2001 in 18 Spanish hospitals were prospectively included in the study and followed-up (median, 70.7 months). Diagnostic slides were reviewed and uniformly classified by expert pathologists. Clinical data was retrieved from hospital charts. Tissue microarrays containing non-muscle invasive (n = 557) and muscle invasive (n = 216) tumours were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using quantitative image analysis. Expression was evaluated in Cox regression models to assess the risk of recurrence, progression and disease-specific mortality. Meta-hazard ratios were estimated using our results and those from 11 additional evaluable studies. COX2 expression was observed in 38% (211/557) of non-muscle invasive and 63% (137/216) of muscle invasive tumors. Expression was associated with advanced pathological stage and grade (p<0.0001). In the univariable analyses, COX2 expression - as a categorical variable - was not associated with any of the outcomes analyzed. As a continuous variable, a weak association with recurrence in non-muscle invasive tumors was observed (p-value = 0.048). In the multivariable analyses, COX2 expression did not independently predict any of the considered outcomes. The meta-analysis confirmed these results. We did not find evidence that COX2 expression is an independent prognostic marker of recurrence, progression or survival in patients with UCB. © 2012 Czachorowski et al. Source

De Maturana E.L.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | Chanok S.J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Picornell A.C.,Spanish National Cancer Research Center | Rothman N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 16 more authors.
Genetic Epidemiology

To build a predictive model for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) risk combining both genomic and nongenomic data, 1,127 cases and 1,090 controls from the Spanish Bladder Cancer/EPICURO study were genotyped using the HumanHap 1M SNP array. After quality control filters, genotypes from 475,290 variants were available. Nongenomic information comprised age, gender, region, and smoking status. Three Bayesian threshold models were implemented including: (1) only genomic information, (2) only nongenomic data, and (3) both sources of information. The three models were applied to the whole population, to only nonsmokers, to male smokers, and to extreme phenotypes to potentiate the UCB genetic component. The area under the ROC curve allowed evaluating the predictive ability of each model in a 10-fold cross-validation scenario. Smoking status showed the highest predictive ability of UCB risk (AUCtest = 0.62). On the other hand, the AUC of all genetic variants was poorer (0.53). When the extreme phenotype approach was applied, the predictive ability of the genomic model improved 15%. This study represents a first attempt to build a predictive model for UCB risk combining both genomic and nongenomic data and applying state-of-the-art statistical approaches. However, the lack of genetic relatedness among individuals, the complexity of UCB etiology, as well as a relatively small statistical power, may explain the low predictive ability for UCB risk. The study confirms the difficulty of predicting complex diseases using genetic data, and suggests the limited translational potential of findings from this type of data into public health interventions. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. Source

Pinho A.V.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Pinho A.V.,Institute Municipal dInvestigacio Medica Hospital Del Mar | Rooman I.,Institute Municipal dInvestigacio Medica Hospital Del Mar | Rooman I.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | And 7 more authors.

Objective: Acinar cells display plasticity in vitro and in vivo and can activate a variety of differentiation programmes that may contribute to pancreatic diseases. The aims were to determine: (1) the differentiation potential of acinar cells under conditions which favour stem cell survival, and (2) its relationship to the phenotypes acquired by pancreatic epithelial cells in chronic pancreatitis. Design: Murine acinar cells were cultured in suspension and their molecular phenotype was characterised by qRT-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry and global transcriptome analysis. These findings were compared to the changes occurring in experimental chronic pancreatitis induced by pancreatic duct ligation and chronic caerulein administration. Results: Acinar cells in suspension culture acquired a dedifferentiated phenotype characteristic of pancreatic embryonic progenitors, consisting of the co-expression of Ptf1a and Pdx1, presence of an embryonic-type PTF1 transcriptional complex, activation of the Notch pathway, and expression of additional pancreatic progenitor cell markers such as CpA1, Sox9 and Hnf1b. A senescence programme, associated with activation of Ras and ERK signalling, limited the proliferative capacity of the cells. A similar progenitor-like phenotype with activation of a senescence programme was observed in experimental chronic pancreatitis induced by pancreatic duct ligation or repeated caerulein administration, with the concomitant and differential activation of proliferation and senescence in distinct cell populations. Conclusions: Acinar cells dedifferentiate into an embryonic progenitor-like phenotype upon suspension culture. This is associated with the activation of a senescence programme. Both processes take place in experimental chronic pancreatitis where senescence may contribute to limit tumour progression. Source

Ehm O.,Institute of Developmental Genetics | Goritz C.,Karolinska Institutet | Covic M.,Institute of Developmental Genetics | Schaffner I.,Institute of Developmental Genetics | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience

The generation of new neurons from neural stem cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus contributes to learning and mood regulation. To sustain hippocampal neurogenesis throughout life, maintenance of the neural stem cell pool has to be tightly controlled. We found that the Notch/RBPJκ- signaling pathway is highly active in neural stem cells of the adult mouse hippocampus. Conditional inactivation of RBPJκ in neural stem cells in vivo resulted in increased neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus at an early time point and depletion of the Sox2-positive neural stem cell pool and suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis at a later time point. Moreover, RBPJκ-deficient neural stem cells displayed impaired self-renewal in vitro and loss of expression of the transcription factor Sox2. Interestingly, we found that Notch signaling increases Sox2 promoter activity and Sox2 expression in adult neural stem cells. In addition, activated Notch and RBPJκ were highly enriched on the Sox2 promoter in adult hippocampal neural stem cells, thus identifying Sox2 as a direct target of Notch/RBPJκ signaling. Finally, we found that overexpression of Sox2 can rescue the self-renewal defect in RBPJκ-deficient neural stem cells. These results identify RBPJκ-dependent pathways as essential regulators of adult neural stem cell maintenance and suggest that the actions of RBPJκ are, at least in part, mediated by control of Sox2 expression. Copyright © 2010 the authors. Source

De La Torre-Carbot K.,University of Barcelona | De La Torre-Carbot K.,CIBER ISCIII | Chavez-Servin J.L.,University of Barcelona | Chavez-Servin J.L.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition

In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded by a 2-wk washout period. The levels of LDL hydroxytyrosol monosulfate and homovanillic acid sulfate, but not of tyrosol sulfate, increased after VOO ingestion (P < 0.05), whereas the concentrations of circulating oxidation markers, including oxidized LDL (oxLDL), conjugated dienes, and hydroxy fatty acids, decreased (P < 0.05). The levels of LDL phenols and oxidation markers were not affected by ROO consumption. The relative increase in the 3 LDL phenols was greater when men consumed VOO than when they consumed ROO (P < 0.05), as was the relative decrease in plasma oxLDL (P = 0.001) and hydroxy fatty acids (P < 0.001). Plasma oxLDL concentrations were negatively correlated with the LDL phenol levels (r = -0.296; P = 0.013). Phenols in LDL were not associated with other oxidation markers. In summary, the phenol concentration of olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained, daily consumption. The inverse relationship of these metabolites with the degree of LDL oxidation supports the in vivo antioxidant role of olive oil phenolics compounds. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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