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Fonseca F.L.,Institute Microbiologia Professor Paulo Of Goes | Nohara L.L.,University of Texas at El Paso | Cordero R.J.B.,Yeshiva University | Frases S.,National Institute of Metrology of Brazil | And 4 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2010

Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular component in the Cryptococcus complex, interacts with the immune system in multiple ways, which include the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the modulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by phagocytes. In this study, we analyzed several structural parameters of GXM samples from Cryptococcus neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcus gattii (serotypes B and C) and correlated them with the production of NO by phagocytes and the activation of TLRs. GXM fractions were differentially recognized by TLR2/TLR1 (TLR2/1) and TLR2/6 heterodimers expressed on TLR-transfected HEK293A cells. Higher NF-κB luciferase reporter activity induced by GXM was observed in cells expressing TLR2/1 than in cells transfected with TLR2/6 constructs. A serotype B GXM from C. gattii was the most effective polysaccharide fraction activating the TLR-mediated response. This serotype B polysaccharide, which was also highly efficient at eliciting the production of NO by macrophages, was similar to the other GXM samples in monosaccharide composition, zeta potential, and electrophoretic mobility. However, immunofluorescence with four different monoclonal antibodies and dynamic light-scattering analysis revealed that the serotype B GXM showed particularities in serological reactivity and had the smallest effective diameter among the GXM samples analyzed in this study. Fractionation of additional serotype B GXMs, followed by exposure of these fractions to macrophages, revealed a correlation between NO production and reduced effective diameters. Our results demonstrate a great functional diversity in GXM samples from different isolates and establish their abilities to differentially activate cellular responses. We propose that serological properties as well as physical chemical parameters, such as the diameter of polysaccharide molecules, may potentially influence the inflammatory response against Cryptococcus spp. and may contribute to the differences in granulomatous inflammation between cryptococcal species. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Oliveira D.L.,Institute Microbiologia Professor Paulo Of Goes | Nakayasu E.S.,University of Texas at El Paso | Nakayasu E.S.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Joffe L.S.,Institute Microbiologia Professor Paulo Of Goes | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Extracellular vesicles in yeast cells are involved in the molecular traffic across the cell wall. In yeast pathogens, these vesicles have been implicated in the transport of proteins, lipids, polysaccharide and pigments to the extracellular space. Cellular pathways required for the biogenesis of yeast extracellular vesicles are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: We characterized extracellular vesicle production in wild type (WT) and mutant strains of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transmission electron microscopy in combination with light scattering analysis, lipid extraction and proteomics. WT cells and mutants with defective expression of Sec4p, a secretory vesicleassociated Rab GTPase essential for Golgi-derived exocytosis, or Snf7p, which is involved in multivesicular body (MVB) formation, were analyzed in parallel. Bilayered vesicles with diameters at the 100-300 nm range were found in extracellular fractions from yeast cultures. Proteomic analysis of vesicular fractions from the cells aforementioned and additional mutants with defects in conventional secretion pathways (sec1-1, fusion of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane; bos1-1, vesicle targeting to the Golgi complex) or MVB functionality (vps23, late endosomal trafficking) revealed a complex and interrelated protein collection. Semi-quantitative analysis of protein abundance revealed that mutations in both MVB- and Golgi-derived pathways affected the composition of yeast extracellular vesicles, but none abrogated vesicle production. Lipid analysis revealed that mutants with defects in Golgi-related components of the secretory pathway had slower vesicle release kinetics, as inferred from intracellular accumulation of sterols and reduced detection of these lipids in vesicle fractions in comparison with WT cells. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest that both conventional and unconventional pathways of secretion are required for biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, which demonstrate the complexity of this process in the biology of yeast cells. © 2010 Oliveira et al.

Lobato L.S.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Rosa P.S.,Lauro Of Sousa Lima Institute | Ferreira Jd.a S.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Neumann Ad.a S.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | And 13 more authors.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antimicrobial resistance has been followed with great concern during the last years, while the need for new drugs able to control leprosy and tuberculosis, mainly due to extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), is pressing. Our group recently showed that M. leprae is able to induce lipid body biogenesis and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and Schwann cells, facilitating its viability and replication. Considering these previous results, we investigated the efficacies of two statins on the intracellular viability of mycobacteria within the macrophage, as well as the effect of atorvastatin on M. leprae infections in BALB/c mice. We observed that intracellular mycobacteria viability decreased markedly after incubation with both statins, but atorvastatin showed the best inhibitory effect when combined with rifampin. Using Shepard's model, we observed with atorvastatin an efficacy in controlling M. leprae and inflammatory infiltrate in the BALB/c footpad, in a serum cholesterol level-dependent way. We conclude that statins contribute to macrophage-bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium bovis, M. leprae, and M. tuberculosis. It is likely that the association of statins with the actual multidrug therapy effectively reduces mycobacterial viability and tissue lesion in leprosy and tuberculosis patients, although epidemiological studies are still needed for confirmation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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