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Sandubete E.C.,University of Seville | de Armas Rodriguez Y.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | de Paz V.C.,IPK
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical

Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens affecting AIDS individuals and immunodepressive patients. In spite of the fact that it was observed one hundred years ago for the first time, many fundamental aspects of its biology and the morbidity it causes are still unknown. Objective: this paper was aimed at presenting updating on the main aspects of the history, the epidemiology and the biology of P. jirovecii and the disease it causes. Conclusions: a number of review articles have been published since the discovery, all of which provide details and novel elements of the microorganism. However, few original papers dealing with this problem have been found in the Spanish literature. © 2011 1999, Editorial Ciencias Médicas. Source

ecological studies were carried out on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance with emphasis on Fasciola hepatica intermediary hosts species. to determine the relative abundance of populations and the possible use of some species as biological control agents against F. hepatica intermediary hosts. a total of 13 freshwater bodies were sampled during March and November, 2008 using Capture by effort unit method to capture the mollusks thirteen mollusk species (12 gastropods and 1 bivalve) were found after sampling. The relative abundance of species varied in different types of habitat. The intermediary host species of fascioliasis were dominant in two sites. Fossaria cubensis was dominant in Canal de la Entrada despite the presence of Melanoides tuberculata. The specie Pseudosuccinea columella was more abundant in Los Mangos. In La Presa del Matadero y Las Palmas despite the presence of these species, the prevailing ones were Physa acuta and some planorbids. the sites where intermediary hosts of Fasciola hepatica predominated were identified through data on the distribution and relative abundance. In some sites Melanoides tuberculata was present and acted as a biological control agent but it did not in others. Therefore, an evaluation on using a different thiarid would be useful to control these species. Source

Rodriguez M.M.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Bisset J.A.,IPK | Ricardo Y.,IPK | Perez O.,IPK | And 2 more authors.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical

INTRODUCTION: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was diagnosed in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Santiago de Cuba in 1997 and some of them are still used up to date; hence the need of ascertaining how the insecticidal resistance has changed in recent times, particularly in 2009. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to organophosporus insecticides in larvae from Santiago de Cuba collected in 2009, and its variation in comparison with that observed in 1997; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of resistance mechanisms on the basis of high esterase activity and its classification. METHODS: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides such as malathion, pirimiphos, methyl, phenitrotion, phention, temephos and clorpiriphos in larvae by using the WHO recommended methodology. The esterase mechanism was identified through biochemical assays and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: larvae from the Santiago de Cuba strain were susceptible to malathion, pirimiphos, methyl and phenitrothion; there was no variation with the results achieved in a Santiago de Cuba strain in 1997, moderate resistance to phenthion and high resistance to temephos and chlorpiriphos were observed. When comparing these results with those of 1997, it was noted that resistance to the three insecticides increased in the 1997-2009 period. In the Santiago de Cuba strain 2009, it was shown that esterase activity was very high at a rate of 0.7. The presence of an amplified type B esterase with relative mobility of 0.95 cm was detected, which did not exist in the reference strain. CONCLUSIONS: resistance to insecticides and its mechanisms are highly variable, even in the same species subjected to various intensities in the insecticidal use, therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor both aspects at local level in the course of time, with a view to an effective vector control program. Source

Rosado Garcia F.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene | Nunez Fernandez F.A.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiologia

Intestinal parasitic infections have high prevalence rates and a broad worldwide distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. On the other hand, it has been estimated that about 50 million persons suffer from epilepsy, of whom 85% live in tropical or developing regions. The prevalence of epilepsy in Cuba ranges between 3.3 and 9 per thousand inhabitants. According to these figures, there must be about 60 thousand epileptics in the country. The presence of intestinal parasites could contribute to make epilepsy refractory to antiepileptic drugs, based on the physiopathological hypothesis that some parasites could have the biological capacity to interfere with the absorption of the drugs. Ever more profound knowledge about the role of intestinal parasites and their relationship to the control of epilepsy, could become an important tool to understand this neurological disorder, especially in developing countries, where intestinal parasite infections are endemic. Source

Fernandez Andreu C.M.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK
Revista cubana de medicina tropical

histoplasmosis, an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, is considered as one of the main endemic infections in the American continent where there are frequent epidemic outbreaks. Most of the outbreaks have been associated to risky activities in bat-inhabited places. This paper presented two outbreaks of occupational acquired histoplasmosis occurred in La Habana province. one hundred and sixteen workers, who performed aerosol-generating tasks in caves, were studied. Samples from the cave soils were taken to assess the existence of the causal agent. Clinical and epidemiological data were gathered for the outbreak characterization. the rates of infection for both outbreaks were 60 % and 78 % respectively. The patients aged 16 to 64 years; additionally, the onset of main clinical manifestations (fever, general malaise, cough, headache, loss of weight, and chest pain) ranged from 10 to 20 days. Histoplasmosis was microbiologically and serologically diagnosed whereas its source of infection was confirmed through H. capsulatum isolation in those places where extensive excavation work had been carried out, resulting in abundant aerosols for up to 21d periods. The similarity between the two outbreaks was the performance of aerosol-generating tasks in risky places without using appropriate safety devices. It is necessary to disseminate the existing preventive measures among the health care staff and the risky groups as well as the general population in order to prevent and take control of possible histoplasmosis outbreaks in the future. Source

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