Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK

Havana, Cuba

Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK

Havana, Cuba
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Sandubete E.C.,University of Seville | de Armas Rodriguez Y.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | de Paz V.C.,IPK
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2011

Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens affecting AIDS individuals and immunodepressive patients. In spite of the fact that it was observed one hundred years ago for the first time, many fundamental aspects of its biology and the morbidity it causes are still unknown. Objective: this paper was aimed at presenting updating on the main aspects of the history, the epidemiology and the biology of P. jirovecii and the disease it causes. Conclusions: a number of review articles have been published since the discovery, all of which provide details and novel elements of the microorganism. However, few original papers dealing with this problem have been found in the Spanish literature. © 2011 1999, Editorial Ciencias Médicas.

PubMed | State University Londrina, University of Campinas, Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK and Instituto Adolfo Lutz Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from water in Brazil was previously described as a hemorrhagic heat-labile cytotoxic-enterotoxin producer. We purified this toxin from culture supernatants using ion metallic affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by molecular exclusion chromatography. The pure toxin presented molecular mass of 50kDa and isoelectric point (pI) around 6.9 by 2D electrophoresis. When injected intravenously, the purified cytotoxic-enterotoxin induced also severe spasms followed by sudden death of mice. Hence, we entitled it as lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE). The presence of membrane vesicles (MVs) on cell surfaces of P. shigelloides was observed by scan electron microscopy (SEM). From these MVs the LCE toxin was extracted and confirmed by biological and serological assays. These data suggest that P. shigelloides also exports this cytotoxic-enterotoxin by membrane vesicles, a different mechanism of delivering extra cellular virulence factors, so far not described in this bacterium.

Mirabal N.C.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Yzquierdo S.L.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Lemus D.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Madruga M.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The direct detection of pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is sufficiently difficult that many laboratories do not attempt it. Most pyrazinamide resistance is caused by mutations that inactivate the pyrazinamidase enzyme needed to convert the prodrug pyrazinamide to its active form. We evaluated two newer and simpler methods to assess pyrazinamidase activity, the nitrate reductase and malachite green microtube assays, using nicotinamide in place of pyrazinamide. A total of 102 strains were tested by these methods and the results compared with those obtained by the classic Wayne assay. Mutations in the pncA gene were identified by sequencing the pncA genes from all isolates in which pyrazinamide resistance was detected by any of the three methods. Both the nitrate reductase and malachite green microtube assays showed sensitivities of 93.75% and specificities of 97.67%. Mutations in the pncA gene were found in 14 of 16 strains that were pyrazinamide resistant and in 1 of 4 strains that were sensitive by the Wayne assay. Both of these simple methods, used with nicotinamide, are promising and inexpensive alternatives for the rapid detection of pyrazinamide resistance in limited-resource countries. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Guerrero E.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research | Lemus D.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Yzquierdo S.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Vilchez G.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research | And 3 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia | Year: 2013

The relation of ethambutol resistance to embB mutations remains unclear, and there are no reports on ethambutol resistance from the Caribbean. We examined the sequence of embB in 57 distinct Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) and non-MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mostly from Cuba and the Dominican Republic. embB306 codon mutations were found exclusively in MDR-TB, but in both ethambutol sensitive and resistant strains. Valine substitutions predominated in ethambutol resistant strains, while isoleucine replacements were more common in sensitive strains. Three ethambutol resistant MDR strains without embB306 substitutions had replacements in embB406 or embB497, but these were also found in ethambutol sensitive MDR strains. The results confirm previous findings that amino acid substitutions in EmbB306, EmbB406 and EmbB497 are found only in MDR-TB strains but in both phenotypically resistant and sensitive strains. One ethambutol resistant non-MDR strain did not have any embB mutation suggesting that other undefined mutations can also confer ethambutol resistance.

Peraza G.T.T.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Caballero R.L.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Solis L.M.P.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Capote M.A.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Sanchez M.V.,Ministerio de Salud Publica
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2010

INTRODUCTION: since 2006 in Cuba, there has been difficult to determine the actual incidente of bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as a result of the low percentage of isolation and identification of this agent in the domestic microbiology lab network. OBJECTIVE: to warn of the need of revitalizing the active surveillance of invasive, epidemiological and microbiological pneumoccocic diseases, mainly meningitis and pneumoniae in the phase prior to vaccination. METHODS: a comparison was made on the circulation of capsulary serogroups/serotypes and the invasive infection-causing S.pneumoniae isolates susceptibility to penicilline in two periods: 1994-2006 and 2007-2009. RESULTS: the most frequent serogroups were 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23; however, in the second period, it was observed that others not contained in the available conjugate vaccines (serogrup 15) and associated to antimicrobial resistance (serotype 5) were circulating. On the other hand, increased resistance to penicilline was evident. CONCLUSIONS: it is required to study a more representative number of isolates in order to assure high effectiveness with the incorporation of some S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccines in the Cuban infant vaccination schedule. This will also allow duly assessing increased resistance to penicilline and adopting therapeutical guidelines suited to the Cuban setting.

Valdes A.F.-C.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Martinez J.M.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Rodriguez D.A.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Lizama R.S.,University of Habana | Gaiten Y.G.,University of Habana
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2011

Introduction: Bixa orellana L. is one species used in traditional herb medicine in several continents. Among the medicinal properties attributed to this plant, the antimalarial action has been included. Objective: to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of extract from B. orellana grown in Cuba. Methods: the antimalarial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract fro Bija seeds was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum Ghana strain and in vivo using a model of murine malaria, that is, Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Citotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 human fibroblasts. Additionally, phytochemical composition of the studied extract was preliminarily informed. Results: the extract exhibited IC50 (Medium Inhibitory Concentration) of 11.6 μg/mL, CC50 (Medium Citotoxic Concentration) of 60.2 μg/mL and SI (Selectivity Index) of 5.1. Subcutaneous administration of the extract at a 500 mg/kg dose caused parasitemia reduction of 50.3 ± 5.8% on infected animals compared with that of the controls. Phytochemical screening was consistent with detection of triterpenoids and/or steroids, alkaloids, lactonic compounds, phenols, tanins and flavonoids. Conclusions: the hydroalcoholic extract from B. orellana seeds grown in Cuba showed in vitro and in vivo moderate antimalarial activity. Bioassay-guided fractioning will allow identifying the molecules responsible for the exhibited extract activity and re-evaluating the potentialities of this extract. © 2011 1999, Editorial Ciencias Médicas.

Rodriguez A.P.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Meneses F.D.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK | Ortega M.R.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2011

Introduction: meningococcal disease is an important health problem worldwide. Since 1991 the vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC has been used in Cuban under one-year old infants. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine VA-MENGO-BC®. Methods: for the evaluation after licensing this vaccine, all the infants affected by meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were studied. Results: a total number of 114 cases were recorded. The annual average incidence was 7.1 per 100 000 infants. The mean vaccinal effectiveness for the period was 84.0 %, ranging from 68 % to 104 %. The frequency of disease in unvaccinated children was 20.2 % (23/114); 79.8 % (91/114) within the vaccination age, but only 75.8 % (69/91) of them had confirmed the immunization date. Only 26.4 % (24/91) had one single dose applied whereas 73.6 % (67/91) had completed their vaccination schedule (2 doses). The meningococcal disease prevailed in the first six months of life, declined afterwards and then started to rise again at 10 and 11 months of age. The meningeal form of clinical presentation predominated (89.5 %); case-fatality rate was 7.0 % (8/114), being 4,4 % for meningococcemia and 2,6 % for meningitis. Conclusions: the vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC® effectiveness in infants was satisfactory. It is suggested that further analysis be made by a group of experts on the use of a booster dose. © 2011 1999, Editorial Ciencias Médicas.

Rosado Garcia F.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Higiene | Nunez Fernandez F.A.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiologia | Year: 2013

Intestinal parasitic infections have high prevalence rates and a broad worldwide distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. On the other hand, it has been estimated that about 50 million persons suffer from epilepsy, of whom 85% live in tropical or developing regions. The prevalence of epilepsy in Cuba ranges between 3.3 and 9 per thousand inhabitants. According to these figures, there must be about 60 thousand epileptics in the country. The presence of intestinal parasites could contribute to make epilepsy refractory to antiepileptic drugs, based on the physiopathological hypothesis that some parasites could have the biological capacity to interfere with the absorption of the drugs. Ever more profound knowledge about the role of intestinal parasites and their relationship to the control of epilepsy, could become an important tool to understand this neurological disorder, especially in developing countries, where intestinal parasite infections are endemic.

ecological studies were carried out on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance with emphasis on Fasciola hepatica intermediary hosts species. to determine the relative abundance of populations and the possible use of some species as biological control agents against F. hepatica intermediary hosts. a total of 13 freshwater bodies were sampled during March and November, 2008 using Capture by effort unit method to capture the mollusks thirteen mollusk species (12 gastropods and 1 bivalve) were found after sampling. The relative abundance of species varied in different types of habitat. The intermediary host species of fascioliasis were dominant in two sites. Fossaria cubensis was dominant in Canal de la Entrada despite the presence of Melanoides tuberculata. The specie Pseudosuccinea columella was more abundant in Los Mangos. In La Presa del Matadero y Las Palmas despite the presence of these species, the prevailing ones were Physa acuta and some planorbids. the sites where intermediary hosts of Fasciola hepatica predominated were identified through data on the distribution and relative abundance. In some sites Melanoides tuberculata was present and acted as a biological control agent but it did not in others. Therefore, an evaluation on using a different thiarid would be useful to control these species.

Fernandez Andreu C.M.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri IPK
Revista cubana de medicina tropical | Year: 2010

histoplasmosis, an infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, is considered as one of the main endemic infections in the American continent where there are frequent epidemic outbreaks. Most of the outbreaks have been associated to risky activities in bat-inhabited places. This paper presented two outbreaks of occupational acquired histoplasmosis occurred in La Habana province. one hundred and sixteen workers, who performed aerosol-generating tasks in caves, were studied. Samples from the cave soils were taken to assess the existence of the causal agent. Clinical and epidemiological data were gathered for the outbreak characterization. the rates of infection for both outbreaks were 60 % and 78 % respectively. The patients aged 16 to 64 years; additionally, the onset of main clinical manifestations (fever, general malaise, cough, headache, loss of weight, and chest pain) ranged from 10 to 20 days. Histoplasmosis was microbiologically and serologically diagnosed whereas its source of infection was confirmed through H. capsulatum isolation in those places where extensive excavation work had been carried out, resulting in abundant aerosols for up to 21d periods. The similarity between the two outbreaks was the performance of aerosol-generating tasks in risky places without using appropriate safety devices. It is necessary to disseminate the existing preventive measures among the health care staff and the risky groups as well as the general population in order to prevent and take control of possible histoplasmosis outbreaks in the future.

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