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Pessoa R.,University of Sao Paulo | Sabino E.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Sanabani S.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Sanabani S.S.,Medicina Institute Medicina Tropical Of Sao Paulo
Virology Journal | Year: 2015

Background: The interaction of HIV-1 and target cells involves sequential binding of the viral gp120 Env protein to the CD4 receptor and a chemokine co-receptor (either CCR5 or CXCR4). CCR5 antagonists have proved to be an effective salvage therapy in patients with CCR5 using variants (R5) but not with variants capable of using CXCR4 (×4) phenotype. Thus, it is critically important to determine cellular tropism of a country's circulating HIV strains to guide a management decision to improve treatment outcome. In this study, we report the prevalence of R5 and ×4 HIV strains in 45 proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing "MPS" data from recently infected Brazilian blood donors. Methods: The MPS data encompassing the tropism-related V3 loop region of the HIV-1 env gene was extracted from our recently published HIV-1 genomes sequenced by a paired-end protocol (Illumina). HIV-1 tropism was inferred using Geno2pheno[coreceptor] algorithm (3.5 % false-positive rate). V3 net charge and 11/25 rules were also used for coreceptor prediction. Results: Among the 45 samples for which tropism were determined, 39 were exclusively R5 variants, 5 ×4 variants, and one dual-tropic or mixed (D/M) populations of R5 and ×4 viruses, corresponding to 86.7, 11.1 and 2.2 %, respectively. Thus, the proportion of all blood donors that harbor CXCR4-using virus was 13.3 % including individuals with D/M-tropic viruses. Conclusions: The presence of CCR5-tropic variants in more than 85 % of our cohort of antiretroviral-naïve blood donors with recent HIV-1 infection indicates a potential benefit of CCR5 antagonists as a therapeutic option in Brazil. Therefore, determination of viral co-receptor tropism is an important diagnostic prerequisite. © 2015 Pessôa et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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