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Veland N.,Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander Von Humboldt | Valencia B.M.,Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander Von Humboldt | Ramos A.P.,Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander Von Humboldt | Calderon F.,Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander Von Humboldt | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

We hypothesized that Leishmania kDNA may be present in urine of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Urine samples and standard diagnostic specimens were collected from patients with skin lesions. kDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on samples from patients and 10 healthy volunteers from non-endemic areas. Eighty-six of 108 patients were diagnosed with CL and 18 (21%) had detectable Leishmania Viannia kDNA in the urine. Sensitivity and specificity were 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3-29.5%) and 100%. Six of 8 patients with mucocutaneous involvement had detectable kDNA in urine versus 12 of 78 patients with isolated cutaneous disease (P < 0.001). L. (V.) braziliensis (N = 3), L. (V.) guyanensis (N = 6), and L. (V.) peruviana (N = 3) were identified from urine. No healthy volunteer or patient with an alternate diagnosis had detectable kDNA in urine. Sensitivity of urine PCR is sub-optimal for diagnosis. On the basis of these preliminary data in a small number of patients, detectable kDNA in urine may identify less localized forms of infection and inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


PubMed | University of Washington, Instituto Hondureno Of Seguridad Social And Hospital Escuela Universitario, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Baylor College of Medicine and 10 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2016

Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America.HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts.The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/L, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57).HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.


PubMed | Fundacion Huesped, University of Chile, Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Instituto Hondureno Of Seguro Social And Hospital Escuela Universitario and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in real life settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) 18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001).The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the publication of evidence of its benefit. We found important heterogeneity between sites which may reflect differences in clinical practices, local guidelines, and access to HAART. The impact of the timing of HAART initiation after OI on patient survival in this real life context needs further evaluation.


PubMed | Fundacion Huesped, University of Chile, Federal University of Bahia, Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2015

To determine the prevalence of adequate monitoring and the costs of measuring CD4+ T-lymphocytes (CD4+ cell) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load in people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in seven countries in the WHO Region of the Americas.We obtained retrospective, longitudinal data for 14476 adults who started a first ART regimen at seven HIV clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru between 2000 and 2011. We estimated the proportion of 180-day periods with adequate monitoring, which we defined as at least one CD4+ cell count and one viral load measurement. Factors associated with adequate monitoring were analysed using regression methods. The costs of the tests were estimated.The median follow-up time was 50.4 months; the proportion of 180-day periods with adequate CD4+ cell counts was 69% while the proportion with adequate monitoring was 62%. Adequate monitoring was more likely in participants who were older, who started ART more recently, whose first regimen included a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or who had a CD4+ cell count less than 200 cells/l at ART initiation. The cost of one CD4+ cell count ranged from 7.37 United States dollars (US$) in Argentina to US$ 64.09 in Chile; the cost of one viral load measurement ranged from US$ 20.34 in Brazil to US$ 186.28 in Haiti.In HIV-infected participants receiving ART in the WHO Region of the Americas, CD4+ cell count and viral load monitoring was often carried out less frequently than regional guidelines recommend. The laboratory costs of monitoring varied greatly.


Soto A.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Solari L.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Agapito J.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Gotuzzo E.,Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2013

Objectives: Diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) remains a challenge, particularly in resource-constrained settings. We evaluated a diagnostic algorithm that combines affordable laboratory tools and a clinical prediction rule (CPR). Methods: We derived, based on published evidence, a diagnostic algorithm for SNPT. Sputum concentration constitutes its first step. In suspects with negative results, SNPT probability is classified with a CPR as low (excluded), high (confirmed) or intermediate. For intermediate patients, sputum Middlebrook 7H9 liquid culture is performed, and they are assessed after 2 weeks. If clinically deteriorated, with still negative liquid culture, bronchoscopy is offered. Otherwise, results of Middlebrook 7H9 culture are awaited. We prospectively evaluated this algorithm against a reference standard of solid and liquid cultures in two reference hospitals in Lima, Peru. Results: 670 SNPT suspects were included from September 2005 to March 2008. The prevalence of SNPT was 27% according to the reference standard. The algorithm's overall accuracy was 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.95), its sensitivity was 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.92) and its specificity, 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.98). Sputum concentration, the CPR, Middlebrook 7H9 sputum culture and bronchoscopic samples defined a diagnosis of SNPT according to the algorithm in 57 (37%), 25 (16%), 63 (41%) and 8(5%) of patients, respectively. 65% of patients were diagnosed within 3 weeks. Conclusions: The algorithm was accurate for SNPT diagnosis. Sputum concentration, CPR and selective Middlebrook 7H9 culture are essential components. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Crabtree-Ramirez B.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion | Caro-Vega Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion | Shepherd B.E.,Vanderbilt University | Wehbe F.,Vanderbilt University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology: Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings: Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52-59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77-82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74-77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87-94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75-83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84-88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02-1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02-1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94-1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87-0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion: LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation are needed to maximize benefits from HAART in the region. © 2011 Crabtree-Ramírez et al.


PubMed | Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt and Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to describe the features in the presentation and management of acute abdomen (AA) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We reviewed the medical records of 97 HIV patients who presented with AA and were seen in 2006-2011 at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital in Lima, Peru. 1.6% of immunosuppressed patients underwent surgery. Appendectomy was the most common surgical procedure (33.3%). Morbidity was 28.1% and postoperative mortality was 9.4%. Infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis was the most common cause of acute abdominal pain, at 26.8%. Data suggest that an early surgical decision for cases of AA in HIV patients may prevent significant morbidity and mortality.


PubMed | Fundacion Huesped, University of Chile, Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Institute Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The lancet. HIV | Year: 2015

Access to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expanding in Latin America (Mexico, Central America, and South America) and the Caribbean. We assessed the incidence of and factors associated with regimen failure and regimen change of initial ART in this region.This observational cohort study included antiretroviral-naive adults starting ART from 2000 to 2014 at sites in seven countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Primary outcomes were time from ART initiation until virological failure, major regimen modification, and a composite endpoint of the first of virological failure or major regimen modification. Cumulative incidence of the primary outcomes was estimated with death considered a competing event.14,027 patients starting ART were followed up for a median of 3.9 years (2.0-6.5): 8374 (60%) men, median age 37 years (IQR 30-44), median CD4 count 156 cells per L (61-253), median plasma HIV RNA 5.0 log10 copies per mL (4.4-5.4), and 3567 (28%) had clinical AIDS. 1719 (12%) patients had virological failure and 1955 (14%) had a major regimen change. Excluding the site in Haiti, which did not regularly measure HIV RNA, cumulative incidence of virological failure was 7.8% (95% CI 7.2-8.5) 1 year after ART initiation, 19.2% (18.2-20.2) at 3 years, and 25.8% (24.6-27.0) at 5 years; cumulative incidence of major regimen change was 5.9% (5.3-6.4) at 1 year, 12.7% (11.9-13.5) at 3 years, and 18.2% (17.2-19.2) at 5 years. Incidence of major regimen change at the site in Haiti was 10.7% (95% CI 9.7-11.6) at 5 years. Virological failure was associated with younger age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.68-2.44, for 20 years vs 40 years), infection through injection drug use (vs infection through heterosexual sex; 1.60, 1.02-2.52), and initiation in earlier calendar years (1.28, 1.13-1.46, for 2002 vs 2006), but was not significantly associated with boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens (vs non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; 1.17, 1.00-1.36).Incidence of virological failure in Latin America and the Caribbean was generally lower than that reported in North America or Europe. Our results suggest the need to design strategies to reduce failure and major regimen change in young patients and those with a history of injection drug use.US National Institutes of Health.


PubMed | Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt and University of Antwerp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica | Year: 2015

To determine the drug resistance profiles for quinolones: ciprofloxacin (CFX), ofloxacin (OFX), moxifloxacin (MFX), and gatifloxacin (GFX); and for injectables: kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AMK), and capreomycin (CAP) in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. We also investigated the correlation between mutations in rrs, tlyA and gyrA/B genes, and the in vitro resistance to the second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.In this pilot study we selected MDR clinical isolates collected from June-December 2004 in the Tropical Medicine Institute Alexander von Humboldt (Lima, Per). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of CFX, OFX, MFX, GFX, KAN, AMK and CAP for 14 clinical isolates were determined and the sequences of rrs, tlyA and gyrA/B genes were analyzed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing.We obtained valid results for 11 samples. Four isolates were resistant to injectable drugs, and in all the cases the MICs were; >120 g/mL for KAN and >160 g/mL for AMK and CAP. Only 2 isolates were resistant to OFX with MIC = 4 g/mL. Sequencing results suggested that the mutation A1401T in rrs gene could be the molecular cause of the resistance to injectable drugs. In this study we did not find any mutation in tlyA and gyrA/B associated to resistance.Our study suggests a possible association between the mutation A1401T in rrs and resistance to injectable drugs. However further studies should be done to confirm this hypothesis in Per.


PubMed | Institute of Tropical Medicine and Institute Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Drug susceptibility testing using molecular techniques can enhance the identification of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Two multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect the most common resistance-associated mutations to isoniazid (katGS315T, inhA-15C T), and rifampicin (rpoBH526Y and rpoBS531L). To assess the species specificity of the qPCR, we selected 31 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) reference strains belonging to 17 species from the public collection of mycobacterial cultures (BCCM/ITM). Additionally, we tested 17 isoniazid and/or rifampicin-resistant strains with other mutations in the target genes to assess mutation specificity. The limit of detection for all the targeted mutations was 20 bacilli/reaction. Multiplex 1 showed 90%, 95%, and 100% efficiency for wild type (WT), Mut katGS315T, and Mut rpoBS531L, respectively; whereas Multiplex 2 showed 97%, 94%, and 90% efficiency for WT, Mut inhA-15, and Mut rpoBH526Y, respectively. Three of 17 strains that presented other mutations in the target genes were identified as rifampicin resistant and only 3/31 NTM showed a similar melting temperature to rpoBL531 and/or katGT315 mutants. Thus, our proposed cascade of specific tuberculosis detection followed by drug resistance testing showed sensitivities for katGS315T, rpoBS531L, rpoBH526Y, and inhA-15 detection of 100%, 100%, 100%, and 96%, respectively; and specificities of 98%, 95%, 100%, and 100, respectively.

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