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Oliveira J.B.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip
Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes have been described lately. We review here the main clinical and laboratory findings of these new disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The prototypical autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) has had its diagnostic criteria modified, somatic mutations in RAS genes were found to cause an ALPS-like syndrome in humans, and mutations in a gene encoding a protein kinase C (PRKCD) were discovered to cause a syndrome of lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and natural killer cell defect. SUMMARY: The recent discoveries shed light on the molecular pathways governing lymphocyte death, proliferation and immune tolerance in humans. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Da Cruz Gouveia P.A.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Da Silva G.A.P.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip | De Fatima Pessoa Militao de Albuquerque M.,Aggeu Magalhaes Research Center
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2013

Objective: To identify risk factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. Methods: Retrospective cohort study with 1200 HIV-exposed children born in Pernambuco, registered up to the age of 2 months in a public programme to prevent vertical transmission. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for maternal and peripartum characteristics and prophylactic interventions, to identify risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Results: The transmission rate was 9.16% (95% CI: 7.4-10.9). The following risk factors were independently associated with transmission: non-use of antiretroviral during pregnancy (OR: 7.8; 95% CI: 4.1-15); vaginal delivery (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.2-3.4); prematurity (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.7); and breastfeeding (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.4-4.6). Conclusions: This mother-to-child transmission rate is unacceptably high, as prophylactic interventions such as antiretroviral therapy and infant feeding formula are free of charge. Absence of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy was the main risk factor. Therefore, early identification of exposed mothers and initiating prophylactic interventions are the main challenges for controlling transmission. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Feliciano K.V.O.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip
Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil | Year: 2010

This article adopts a hermeneutical and critical approach, in order to examine the importance of the conditions making possible and legitimizing communications practices aiming to evaluate the Family Health Strategy. It is the participatory nature of the strategy that enables it to establish social networks and negotiation techniques aiming to achieve coherence between the autonomous judgment of each individual and the expectation of obtaining contracts and agreements for joint projects. The shared decisionmaking process is shown to be a network of relations that are always in tension, in which the success of negotiations may be hampered by asymmetrical power relations and unfair distribution of the power to make threats. This means that is indispensable that what is said and how language is used be called into question. In order to reflect on language as a construct in a given context, the article draws on the work of Gadamer, Habermas and Ricoeur. It aims to reaffirm the importance of intersubjectivity as a condition for decision-making, thereby helping to build up the training potential of evaluation in the area of health.

Meneses J.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip | Bhandari V.,Yale University | Alves J.G.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip | Herrmann D.,University of Alagoas
Pediatrics | Year: 2011

CONTEXT: Strategies for reducing exposure to endotracheal ventilation through the use of early noninvasive ventilation has proven to be safe and effective, but the option with the greatest benefits needs to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine, in infants with respiratory distress syndrome, if early nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) decreases the need for mechanical ventilation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single-center, randomized controlled trial, infants (gestational ages 26 to 33 6/7 weeks) with respiratory distress syndrome were randomly assigned to receive early NIPPV or NCPAP. Surfactant was administered as rescue therapy. The primary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation within the first 72 hours of life. RESULTS: A total of 200 infants, 100 in each arm, were randomly assigned. Rates of the primary outcome did not differ significantly between the NIPPV (25%) and NCPAP (34%) groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.14]). In posthoc analysis, from 24 to 72 hours of life, significantly more infants in the NIPPV group remained extubated compared with those in the NCPAP groups (10 vs 22%; RR: 0.45 [95% CI: 0.22-0.91]). This difference was also noted in the group of infants who received surfactant therapy, NIPPV (10.9%), and NCPAP (27.1%) (RR: 0.40 [95% CI: 0.18-0.86]). CONCLUSIONS: Early NIPPV did not decrease the need for mechanical ventilation compared with NCPAP, overall, in the first 72 hours of life. However, further studies to assess the potential benefits of noninvasive ventilation are warranted, especially for the most vulnerable or preterm infants. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Pacheco A.J.C.,Universidade Sao Francisco | Katz L.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip | Souza A.S.R.,Institute Medicina Integral Prof Fernando Figueira Imip | Souza A.S.R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 2 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Maternal mortality remains a major public health issue worldwide, with persistent high rates prevailing principally in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe maternal morbidity and near miss (SMM/NM) in pregnant and postpartum women at the maternity ward of the Dom Malan Hospital, Petrolina, in northeastern Brazil.Methods: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted to evaluate the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of the women. Patients who remained hospitalized at the end of the study period were excluded. Risk ratios (RR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated as a measure of relative risk. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was also performed. Two-tailed p-values were used for all the tests and the significance level adopted was 5%.Results: A total of 2,291 pregnant or postpartum women receiving care between May and August, 2011 were included. The frequencies of severe maternal morbidity and near miss were 17.5% and 1.0%, respectively. Following multivariate analysis, the factors that remained significantly associated with an increased risk of SMM/NM were a Cesarean section in the current pregnancy (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 2.0 - 3.3), clinical comorbidities (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.5 - 4.4), having attended fewer than six prenatal visits (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.69) and the presence of the third delay (i.e. delay in receiving care at the health facility) (OR: 13.3; 95% CI: 6.7 - 26.4).Conclusions: The risk of SMM/NM was greater in women who had been submitted to a Cesarean section in the current pregnancy, in the presence of clinical comorbidities, fewer prenatal visits and when the third delay was present. All these factors could be minimized by initiating a broad debate on healthcare policies, introducing preventive measures and improving the training of the professionals and services providing obstetric care. © 2014 Pacheco et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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