Bottasso Arias N.M.,National University of La Plata |
Garcia M.,National University of La Plata |
Garcia M.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Bondar C.,National University of La Plata |
And 5 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2015
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs): intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs' expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa. © 2015 Natalia M. Bottasso Arias et al.
Barrera G.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Landoni V.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Martire-Greco D.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Chiarella P.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
And 7 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2011
Severe sepsis is associated with early release of inflammatory mediators that contribute to the morbidity and mortality observed during the first stages of this syndrome. Although sepsis is a deadly, acute disease, high mortality rates have been observed in patients displaying evidence of sepsis-induced immune deactivation. Although the contribution of experimental models to the knowledge of pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of human sepsis is undeniable, most of the current studies using animal models have focused on the acute, proinflammatory phase. We developed a murine model that reproduces the early acute phases but also the long-term consequences of human sepsis. We induced polymicrobial acute peritonitis (AP) by establishing a surgical connection between the cecum and the peritoneum, allowing the exit of intestinal bacteria. Using this model, we observed an acute phase with high mortality, leukopenia, increased interleukin-6 levels, bacteremia, and neutrophil activation. A peak of leukocytosis on day 9 or 10 revealed the persistence of the infection within the lung and liver, with inflammatory hepatic damage being shown by histological examination. Long-term (20 days) derangements in both innate and adaptive immune responses were found, as demonstrated by impaired systemic tumor necrosis factor alpha production in response to an inflammatory stimulus; a decreased primary humoral immune response and T cell proliferation, associated with an increased number of myeloid suppressor cells (Gr-1 + CD11b+) in the spleen; and a low clearance capacity. This model provides a good approach to attempt novel therapeutic interventions directed to augmenting host immunity during late sepsis. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Benitez P.C.A.,University of Buenos Aires |
Serantes D.R.,CONICET |
Herrmann C.K.,CONICET |
Viglietti A.I.P.,University of Buenos Aires |
And 4 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2015
The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway.
Rearte B.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Maglioco A.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Machuca D.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Martire Greco D.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
And 5 more authors.
Innate Immunity | Year: 2014
Prior exposure to endotoxins renders the host temporarily refractory to subsequent endotoxin challenge (endotoxin tolerance). Clinically, this state has also been pointed out as the initial cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. We recently demonstrated the restoration of immune response with mifepristone (RU486), a receptor antagonist of glucocorticoids. Here we report the treatment with other modulators of glucocorticoids, i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone with anti-glucocorticoid properties, or metyrapone (MET) an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis. These drugs were able to partially, but significantly, restore the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. A significant recovery of proliferative responsiveness was also observed when splenocytes were obtained from DHEA- or MET-treated immunosuppressed mice. In addition, these treatments restored the hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Finally, although neither DHEA nor MET improved the reduced CD4 lymphocyte count in spleen from immunosuppressed mice, both treatments promoted spleen architecture reorganization, partially restoring the distinct cellular components and their localization in the spleen. The results from this study indicate that DHEA and MET could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS-immunosuppressed mice, reinforcing the concept of a central involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids on this phenomenon. © 2013 The Author(s).
Gabelloni M.L.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Trevani A.S.,Institute Medicina Experimental IMEX |
Sabatte J.,University of Buenos Aires |
Geffner J.,University of Buenos Aires
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2013
Neutrophils not only play a critical role as a first line of defense against bacteria and fungi infections but also contribute to tissue injury associated with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils are rapidly and massively recruited from the circulation into injured tissues displaying an impressive arsenal of toxic weapons. Although effective in their ability to kill pathogens, these weapons were equally effective to induce tissue damage. Therefore, the inflammatory activity of neutrophils must be regulated with exquisite precision and timing, a task mainly achieved through a complex network of mechanisms, which regulate neutrophil survival. Neutrophils have the shortest lifespan among leukocytes and usually die via apoptosis although new forms of cell death have been characterized over the last few years. The lifespan of neutrophils can be dramatically modulated by a large variety of agents such as cytokines, pathogens, danger-associated molecular patterns as well as by pharmacological manipulation. Recent findings shed light about the complex mechanisms responsible for the regulation of neutrophil survival in different physiological, pathological, and pharmacological scenarios. Here, we provide an updated review on the current knowledge and new findings in this field and discuss novel strategies that could be used to drive the resolution of neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.