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PubMed | Guys and St Thomas Hospital, University Institute of La Paz, Hospital Charles Nicolle, Brest University Hospital Center and 35 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A | Year: 2016

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a developmental disorder characterized by a typical face and distal limbs abnormalities, intellectual disability, and a vast number of other features. Two genes are known to cause RSTS, CREBBP in 60% and EP300 in 8-10% of clinically diagnosed cases. Both paralogs act in chromatin remodeling and encode for transcriptional co-activators interacting with >400 proteins. Up to now 26 individuals with an EP300 mutation have been published. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of 42 unpublished RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations and intragenic deletions and offer an update on another 10 patients. We compare the data to 308 individuals with CREBBP mutations. We demonstrate that EP300 mutations cause a phenotype that typically resembles the classical RSTS phenotype due to CREBBP mutations to a great extent, although most facial signs are less marked with the exception of a low-hanging columella. The limb anomalies are more similar to those in CREBBP mutated individuals except for angulation of thumbs and halluces which is very uncommon in EP300 mutated individuals. The intellectual disability is variable but typically less marked whereas the microcephaly is more common. All types of mutations occur but truncating mutations and small rearrangements are most common (86%). Missense mutations in the HAT domain are associated with a classical RSTS phenotype but otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation is detected. Pre-eclampsia occurs in 12/52 mothers of EP300 mutated individuals versus in 2/59 mothers of CREBBP mutated individuals, making pregnancy with an EP300 mutated fetus the strongest known predictor for pre-eclampsia. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | University of Tübingen, King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center, Alexandria University, Stanford University and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome biology | Year: 2016

Ciliopathies are clinically diverse disorders of the primary cilium. Remarkable progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of these genetically heterogeneous conditions; however, our knowledge of their morbid genome, pleiotropy, and variable expressivity remains incomplete.We applied genomic approaches on a large patient cohort of 371 affected individuals from 265 families, with phenotypes that span the entire ciliopathy spectrum. Likely causal mutations in previously described ciliopathy genes were identified in 85% (225/265) of the families, adding 32 novel alleles. Consistent with a fully penetrant model for these genes, we found no significant difference in their mutation load beyond the causal variants between our ciliopathy cohort and a control non-ciliopathy cohort. Genomic analysis of our cohort further identified mutations in a novel morbid gene TXNDC15, encoding a thiol isomerase, based on independent loss of function mutations in individuals with a consistent ciliopathy phenotype (Meckel-Gruber syndrome) and a functional effect of its deficiency on ciliary signaling. Our study also highlighted seven novel candidate genes (TRAPPC3, EXOC3L2, FAM98C, C17orf61, LRRCC1, NEK4, and CELSR2) some of which have established links to ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that the morbid genome of ciliopathies encompasses many founder mutations, the combined carrier frequency of which accounts for a high disease burden in the study population.Our study increases our understanding of the morbid genome of ciliopathies. We also provide the strongest evidence, to date, in support of the classical Mendelian inheritance of Bardet-Biedl syndrome and other ciliopathies.


Boyden S.E.,National Human Genome Research Institute | Desai A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Cruse G.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Young M.L.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | And 16 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

Patients with autosomal dominant vibratory urticaria have localized hives and systemic manifestations in response to dermal vibration, with coincident degranulation of mast cells and increased histamine levels in serum. We identified a previously unknown missense substitution in ADGRE2 (also known as EMR2), which was predicted to result in the replacement of cysteine with tyrosine at amino acid position 492 (p.C492Y), as the only nonsynonymous variant cosegregating with vibratory urticaria in two large kindreds. The ADGRE2 receptor undergoes autocatalytic cleavage, producing an extracellular subunit that noncovalently binds a transmembrane subunit. We showed that the variant probably destabilizes an autoinhibitory subunit interaction, sensitizing mast cells to IgE-independent vibration-induced degranulation. © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.


Maalouf D.,Saint - Joseph University | Megarbane H.,Saint George Hospital | Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Nasr J.,Saint George Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: Focal dermal hypoplasia (also known as Goltz syndrome) is an X-linked dominant syndrome characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin with soft-tissue, skeletal, dental, and ocular defects that are secondary to mutations in the PORCN gene. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of focal dermal hypoplasia with unilateral presentation have been reported, and molecular studies were not performed in any of the cases. Observations: A 17-year-old girl was seen with features of almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia. These included left cleft hand, dental dysplasia, left mammary hypoplasia, deviation of the sacral line, raspberrylike papillomas in the perianal region, syndactyly of the second and third digits of the left foot, and linear streaks of dermal hypoplasia and pigmented lesions on her left hemibody. Conclusions: Mutation analysis of PORCN revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 10, c.854-855insACCTGAC; [p.T285fsX316], resulting in a premature stop signal. Analysis of the X-chromosome inactivation status was performed on blood and skin DNA samples, showing random inactivation in blood and unaffected skin and skewed inactivation in affected skin, highlighting the role of X-chromosome inactivation in X-linked disease expression. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Bernard G.,McGill University | Bernard G.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Putorti M.L.,Montreal Neurological Institute | And 21 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal white matter visible by brain imaging. It is estimated that at least 30% to 40% of individuals remain without a precise diagnosis despite extensive investigations. We mapped tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH) to 10q22.3-23.1 in French-Canadian families and sequenced candidate genes within this interval. Two missense and one insertion mutations in five individuals with TACH were uncovered in POLR3A, which codes for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Because these families were mapped to the same locus as leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO) and presented clinical and radiological overlap with individuals with hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H) syndrome, we sequenced this gene in nine individuals with 4H and eight with LO. In total, 14 recessive mutations were found in 19 individuals with TACH, 4H, or LO, establishing that these leukodystrophies are allelic. No individual was found to carry two nonsense mutations. Immunoblots on 4H fibroblasts and on the autopsied brain of an individual diagnosed with 4H documented a significant decrease in POLR3A levels, and there was a more significant decrease in the cerebral white matter compared to that in the cortex. Pol III has a wide set of target RNA transcripts, including all nuclear-coded tRNA. We hypothesize that the decrease in POLR3A leads to dysregulation of the expression of certain Pol III targets and thereby perturbs cytoplasmic protein synthesis. This type of broad alteration in protein synthesis is predicted to occur in other leukoencephalopathies such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3, caused by mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1). © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics.


Cossec J.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lavaur J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Berman D.E.,Columbia University Medical Center | Rivals I.,ESPCI ParisTech | And 14 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

Enlarged early endosomes have been observed in neurons and fibroblasts in Down syndrome (DS). These endosome abnormalities have been implicated in the early development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in these subjects. Here, we show the presence of enlarged endosomes in blood mononuclear cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from individuals with DS using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Genotype-phenotype correlations in LCLs carrying partial trisomies 21 revealed that triplication of a 2.56 Mb locus in 21q22.11 is associated with the endosomal abnormalities. This locus contains the gene encoding the phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1), a key regulator of the signalling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate that has been shown to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We found that SYNJ1 transcripts are increased in LCLs from individuals with DS and that overexpression of SYNJ1 in a neuroblastoma cell line as well as in transgenic mice leads to enlarged endosomes. Moreover, the proportion of enlarged endosomes in fibroblasts from an individual with DS was reduced after silencing SYNJ1 expression with RNA interference. In LCLs carrying amyloid precursor protein (APP) microduplications causing autosomal dominant early-onset AD, enlarged endosomes were absent, suggesting that APP overexpression alone is not involved in the modification of early endosomes in this cell type. These findings provide new insights into the contribution of SYNJ1 overexpression to the endosomal changes observed in DS and suggest an attractive new target for rescuing endocytic dysfunction and lipid metabolism in DS and in AD. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Capo-Chichi J.-M.,University of Montréal | Bharti S.K.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Sommers J.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Yammine T.,Saint - Joseph University | And 10 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2013

Mutations in the gene encoding the iron-sulfur-containing DNA helicase DDX11 (ChlR1) were recently identified as a cause of a new recessive cohesinopathy, Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS), in a single patient with severe microcephaly, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and abnormal skin pigmentation. Here, using homozygosity mapping in a Lebanese consanguineous family followed by exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.788G>A [p.R263Q]) in DDX11 in three affected siblings with severe intellectual disability and many of the congenital abnormalities reported in the WABS original case. Cultured lymphocytes from the patients showed increased mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage, as found in WABS. Biochemical studies of purified recombinant DDX11 indicated that the p.R263Q mutation impaired DDX11 helicase activity by perturbing its DNA binding and DNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis. Our findings thus confirm the involvement of DDX11 in WABS, describe its phenotypical spectrum, and provide novel insight into the structural requirement for DDX11 activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Harvard University, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Sidra Medical & Research Center, Research Office and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC medical genetics | Year: 2016

KCNH1 encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel that is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene were recently found to be responsible for Temple-Baraitser Syndrome (TMBTS) and Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS).Here, we report a new case of TMBTS diagnosed in a Lebanese child. Whole genome sequencing was carried out on DNA samples of the proband and his parents to identify mutations associated with this disease. Sanger sequencing was performed to confirm the presence of detected variants.Whole genome sequencing revealed three missense mutations in TMBTS patient: c.1042G>A in KCNH1, c.2131T>C in STK36, and c.726C>A in ZNF517. According to all predictors, mutation in KCNH1 is damaging de novo mutation that results in substitution of Glycine by Arginine, i.e., p.(Gly348Arg). This mutation was already reported in a patient with ZLS that could affect the connecting loop between helices S4-S5 of KCNH1 with a gain of function effect.Our findings demonstrate that KCNH1 mutations cause TMBTS and expand the mutational spectrum of KCNH1 in TMBTS. In addition, all cases of TMBTS were reviewed and compared to ZLS. We suggest that the two syndromes are a continuum and that the variability in the phenotypes is the result of the involvement of genetic modifiers.


PubMed | Hotel Dieu Of France University Hospital Beirut, Sidra Medical & Research Center, Laboratory of Genetic Medicine and Immunology, Research office and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2017

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a recently introduced alternative term for two disorders that were previously known as juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) and infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH). These two variants are secondary to mutations in the anthrax toxin receptor 2 gene (ANTXR2) located on chromosome 4q21. The main clinical features of both entities include papular and/or nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and osteolytic bone lesions that appear in the first few years of life, and the syndrome typically progresses with the appearance of new lesions.We describe five Lebanese patients from one family, aged between 28 and 58years, and presenting with nodular and papular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone lesions. Because of the particular clinical features and the absence of a clinical diagnosis, Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was carried out on DNA samples from the proband and his parents.A mutation in ANTXR2 (p. Gly116Val) that yielded a diagnosis of HFS was noted.The main goal of this paper is to add to the knowledge related to the clinical and radiographic aspects of HFS in adulthood and to show the importance of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques in resolving such puzzling cases.


Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Choucair N.,Saint - Joseph University | Abou Ghoch J.,Saint - Joseph University | El Sabbagh S.,Service de Pediatrie | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2013

We report a 2.3-year-old female patient with global developmental delay, infantile spasms, hypotonia, microcephaly, flat face, full cheeks, macroglossia, highly arched palate, retro-gnathia, narrow ear orifices, and café-au-lait spots. Molecular karyotyping revealed approximately a 1-Mb interstitial deletion of the long arm of one chromosome 12, del(12)(q24.31). The same deletion was identified in her father who presents insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) diagnosed at 14 years. Only one other patient with a similar de novo deletion has been reported previously [Mol Syndromol 2010;1:42-45]. A phenotype-genotype correlation is discussed, and the description of a novel rare microdeletion entity is raised. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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