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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Brun M.-E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lana E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lana E.,Montpellier University | Rivals I.,ESPCI ParisTech | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, Facial Anomalies (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by a marked immunodeficiency, severe hypomethylation of the classical satellites 2 and 3 associated with disruption of constitutive heterochromatin, and facial anomalies. Sixty percent of ICF patients have mutations in the DNMT3B (DNA methyltransferase 3B) gene, encoding a de novo DNA methyltransferase. In the present study, we have shown that, in ICF lymphoblasts and peripheral blood, juxtacentromeric heterochromatic genes undergo dramatic changes in DNA methylation, indicating that they are bona fide targets of the DNMT3B protein. DNA methylation in heterochromatic genes dropped from about 80% in normal cells to approximately 30% in ICF cells. Hypomethylation was observed in five ICF patients and was associated with activation of these silent genes. Although DNA hypomethylation occurred in all the analyzed heterochromatic genes and in all the ICF patients, gene expression was restricted to some genes, every patient having his own group of activated genes. Histone modifications were preserved in ICF patients. Heterochromatic genes were associated with histone modifications that are typical of inactive chromatin: they had low acetylation on H3 and H4 histones and were slightly enriched in H3K9Me3, both in ICF and controls. This was also the case for those heterochromatic genes that escaped silencing. This finding suggests that gene activation was not generalized to all the cells, but rather was restricted to a clonal cell population that may contribute to the phenotypic variability observed in ICF syndrome. A slight increase in H3K27 monomethylation was observed both in heterochromatin and active euchromatin in ICF patients; however, no correlation between this modification and activation of heterochromatic genes was found. © 2011 Brun et al.

Bernard G.,McGill University | Bernard G.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Putorti M.L.,Montreal Neurological Institute | And 21 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal white matter visible by brain imaging. It is estimated that at least 30% to 40% of individuals remain without a precise diagnosis despite extensive investigations. We mapped tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH) to 10q22.3-23.1 in French-Canadian families and sequenced candidate genes within this interval. Two missense and one insertion mutations in five individuals with TACH were uncovered in POLR3A, which codes for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Because these families were mapped to the same locus as leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO) and presented clinical and radiological overlap with individuals with hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H) syndrome, we sequenced this gene in nine individuals with 4H and eight with LO. In total, 14 recessive mutations were found in 19 individuals with TACH, 4H, or LO, establishing that these leukodystrophies are allelic. No individual was found to carry two nonsense mutations. Immunoblots on 4H fibroblasts and on the autopsied brain of an individual diagnosed with 4H documented a significant decrease in POLR3A levels, and there was a more significant decrease in the cerebral white matter compared to that in the cortex. Pol III has a wide set of target RNA transcripts, including all nuclear-coded tRNA. We hypothesize that the decrease in POLR3A leads to dysregulation of the expression of certain Pol III targets and thereby perturbs cytoplasmic protein synthesis. This type of broad alteration in protein synthesis is predicted to occur in other leukoencephalopathies such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3, caused by mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1). © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Corbani S.,Saint - Joseph University | Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Eid B.,Hotel Dieu de France Hospital | Jalkh N.,Saint - Joseph University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2011

We report on a 10.5-year-old girl with a mild form of campomelic dysplasia. She presented with short stature of prenatal onset, dysmorphic facial features, limitation of supination and pronation of the forearms, dysplastic nails, and bone abnormalities consisting especially of cone-shaped epiphyses of the middle phalanx of the 2nd fingers, brachydactyly and clinodactyly of the middle phalanx of both 5th fingers, short 4th metacarpals, radial and femoral head subluxation, hypoplastic scapulae, humeral and ulnar epiphyseal abnormalities, unossified symphysis pubis, and a significant delay in bone age. Molecular analysis of the SOX9 gene revealed the presence of a de novo missense mutation: p.P170L (c.509C>T). Mild and surviving cases of campomelic dysplasia are reviewed. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Chouery E.,Saint - Joseph University | Choucair N.,Saint - Joseph University | Abou Ghoch J.,Saint - Joseph University | El Sabbagh S.,Service de pediatrie | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2013

We report a 2.3-year-old female patient with global developmental delay, infantile spasms, hypotonia, microcephaly, flat face, full cheeks, macroglossia, highly arched palate, retro-gnathia, narrow ear orifices, and café-au-lait spots. Molecular karyotyping revealed approximately a 1-Mb interstitial deletion of the long arm of one chromosome 12, del(12)(q24.31). The same deletion was identified in her father who presents insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) diagnosed at 14 years. Only one other patient with a similar de novo deletion has been reported previously [Mol Syndromol 2010;1:42-45]. A phenotype-genotype correlation is discussed, and the description of a novel rare microdeletion entity is raised. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Capo-Chichi J.-M.,University of Montreal | Bharti S.K.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Sommers J.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Yammine T.,Saint - Joseph University | And 10 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2013

Mutations in the gene encoding the iron-sulfur-containing DNA helicase DDX11 (ChlR1) were recently identified as a cause of a new recessive cohesinopathy, Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS), in a single patient with severe microcephaly, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and abnormal skin pigmentation. Here, using homozygosity mapping in a Lebanese consanguineous family followed by exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.788G>A [p.R263Q]) in DDX11 in three affected siblings with severe intellectual disability and many of the congenital abnormalities reported in the WABS original case. Cultured lymphocytes from the patients showed increased mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage, as found in WABS. Biochemical studies of purified recombinant DDX11 indicated that the p.R263Q mutation impaired DDX11 helicase activity by perturbing its DNA binding and DNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis. Our findings thus confirm the involvement of DDX11 in WABS, describe its phenotypical spectrum, and provide novel insight into the structural requirement for DDX11 activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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