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Strickland B.,Yale University | Strickland B.,Institute Jean Nicod | Scholl B.J.,Yale University
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2015

Recent infant cognition research suggests that core knowledge involves event-type representations: During perception, the mind automatically categorizes physical events into broad types (e.g., occlusion and containment), which then guide attention to different properties (e.g., with width processed at a younger age than height in containment events but not occlusion events). We tested whether this aspect of infant cognition also structures adults' visual processing. In 6 experiments, adults had to detect occasional changes in ongoing dynamic displays that depicted repeating occlusion or containment events. Mirroring the developmental progression, change detection was better for width versus height changes in containment events, but no such difference was found for otherwise equivalent occlusion events, even though most observers were not even aware of the subtle occlusion-containment difference. These results suggest for the first time that event-type representations exist and operate automatically and unconsciously as part of the underlying currency of adult visual cognition. © 2015 American Psychological Association. Source


Zehr J.,Institute Jean Nicod
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Both presuppositional and vague expressions may yield non-classical truth-value judgments. Given that expressions of these kinds may combine together, I propose a single logical system intended to deal with them, which would account for our truth-value judgments. The system I propose is based on Cobreros&al's [4] 3-valued system for vagueness, ST, which comes with a notion of assertoric ambiguity that I claim naturally deals with our non-classical judgments for vagueness. I show that the specificities of presuppositions with respect to truth-value judgments can be accounted for within this system if we add two logical values to it. I discuss a specific 5-valued system that I call ST5. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Miton H.,Institute Jean Nicod | Claidiere N.,Aix - Marseille University | Mercier H.,University of Neuchatel
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Bloodletting-the practice of letting blood out to cure a patient-was for centuries one of the main therapies in the west. We lay out three potential explanations for bloodletting's cultural success: that it was efficient, that it was defended by prestigious sources-in particular ancient physicians-, and that cognitive mechanisms made it a particularly attractive practice. To test these explanations, we first review the anthropological data available in eHRAF. These data reveal that bloodletting is practiced by many unrelated cultures worldwide, where it is performed for different indications and in different ways. This suggests that the success of bloodletting cannot only be explained by its medical efficiency or by the prestige of western physicians. Instead, some universal cognitive mechanisms likely make bloodletting an attractive form of therapy. We further test this hypothesis using the technique of transmission chains. Three experiments are conducted in the U.S., a culture that does not practice bloodletting. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that stories involving bloodletting survive longer than some other common therapies, and that the most successful variants in the experiments are also the most successful variants worldwide. Study 3 shows how a story about a mundane event-an accidental cut-can turn into a story about bloodletting. This research demonstrates the potential of combining different methodologies-review of anthropological data, experiments, and modeling-to investigate cultural phenomena. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


de Vignemont F.,Institute Jean Nicod
Psyche | Year: 2010

The classic notion of an egocentric frame of reference cannot be easily applied to bodily space, given the difficulties in providing a center of such frame as well as axes on which one could compute distances and directions (Bermudez, 1998, 2005). Yet, Smith (this volume) tries to rehabilitate the egocentric account of bodily frame by switching from an anatomical definition of egocentricity (i.e. frame of reference that takes the body or part of the body as origin of its axes) to a more functional definition (i.e. the space of one's own bodily actions). Here I will review some empirical evidence that shows that one cannot ground bodily experiences in action. There is more than one type of bodily spatial representations, and only one of them is linked to actions. How then to account for bodily spatial content? What is encoded in the spatial content and how? I will provide a tentative account based on two types of spatial content, namely, coordinate body space and categorical body space. Source


Ueda T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Ueda T.,Institute Jean Nicod | Ueda T.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

This paper focuses on geographical names, which are names of geographical regions. Geographical and personal names will be distinguished with reference to evidence from linguistics as well as cognitive science. Since the entire debate is on the relationship between geographical names and their bearers, the reference of geographical names in the context of use will be examined and two possible views on geographical name reference will be proposed. As a test case, the cases of geographical developments will be examined. The basic idea involves extending the indexicality account with generic names. If a geographical name is used in the standard context, it refers to specific geographical territory, whose development is tracked by discursive participants through (a) the causal history of communications of the name in question and (b) its current referred territory. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source

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