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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Clarke N.F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clarke N.F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Maugenre S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Maugenre S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 18 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

Mutation of the LARGE gene is the rarest of the six known genetic causes of α-dystroglycanopathy. We report further a family with MDC1D due to a complex genomic rearrangement that was not apparent on standard sequencing of LARGE. Two sisters in a consanguineous family had moderate mental retardation and cerebellar malformations, together with dystrophic changes and markedly reduced α-dystroglycan glycosylation staining on muscle biopsy. There was homozygous linkage to the LARGE locus but sequencing of LARGE coding regions was normal. Analysis of LARGE cDNA showed an abnormal sequence inserted between exons 10 and 11, in most of the transcripts, predicted to introduce a premature stop codon. The abnormal sequence mapped to a spliced EST (DA935254) of unknown function, normally located at 100 kb centromeric of LARGE on chromosome 22q12.3. Quantitative PCR analysis of the EST and adjacent regions showed twice the normal copy number in patients genomic DNA samples, consistent with a large intra-chromosomal duplication inserted into intron 10 of LARGE in a homozygous state. This insertion was associated with deletion of a central region of intron 10, but the exact break points of the deletion/duplication were not found, suggesting that an even more complex rearrangement may have occurred. The exact function of LARGE, a golgi protein, remains uncertain. POMT and POMGnT enzyme activities were normal in patients lymphoblast cells, suggesting that defects in LARGE do not affect the initiation of O-mannosyl glycans. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Megarbane A.,Institute Je Rome Lejeune | Megarbane A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Noguier F.,Skuldtech | Stora S.,Institute Je Rome Lejeune | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

Trisomy 21 (T21), or Down syndrome (DS), is the most frequent and recognizable cause of intellectual disabilities. The level of disability, as evaluated by the intelligence quotient (IQ) test, varies considerably between patients independent of other factors. To determine the genetic or molecular basis of this difference, a high throughput transcriptomic analysis was performed on twenty T21 patients with high and low IQ, and 10 healthy controls using Digital Gene Expression. More than 90 millions of tags were sequenced in the three libraries. A total of 80 genes of potential interest were selected for the qPCR experiment validation, and three housekeeping genes were used for normalizing purposes. HLA DQA1 and HLA DRB1 were significantly downregulated among the patients with a low IQ, the values found in the healthy controls being intermediate between those noted in the IQ+ and IQ-T21 patients. Interestingly, the intergenic region between these genes contains a binding sequence for the CCCTC-binding factor, or CTCF, and cohesin (a multisubunit complex), both of which are essential for expression of HLA DQA1 and HLA DRB1 and numerous other genes. Our results might lead to the discovery of genes, or genetic markers, that are directly involved in several phenotypes of DS and, eventually, to the identification of potential targets for therapeutic interventions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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