Garces M.F.,National University of Colombia |
Poveda N.E.,National University of Colombia |
Sanchez E.,National University of Colombia |
Sanchez T.Y.,National University of Colombia |
And 8 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2014
Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic neuropeptide derived by post-translational cleavage from the N-terminus region DNA binding/EF-hand/acidic amino acid rich region (NEFA)/nucleobindin2 (NucB2) protein through proteolytic prohormone convertases. This neuropeptide was originally localized in different appetite controlling areas such as the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, and nucleus tractus solitarius. The objective of this study was to determine the expression and the changes that occur to mRNA and protein of NucB2 and Nesfatin-1 serum levels during gestation.This study utilized molecular and immunological approaches to investigate the expression and regulation of NucB2/Nesfatin-1 protein throughout gestation in rat fed under ad libitum and food restricted conditions (30% nutrient restriction). NucB2 was immunolocalized in the amnion and decidua of the rat placenta. Nesfatin-1 serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on gestational days 12, 16, 19 and 21, showing a significant (p. <. 0.01) decrease in serum levels after day 12 until the end of gestation in rats fed ad libitum. These results were correlated with the analysis of NucB2 mRNA, with a significant (p. <. 0.01) reduction observed in both the mRNA and protein of NucB2 during the gestational days 12, 16 and 21. It was also observed that food restriction decreases Nesfatin-1 serum levels and NucB2 placental expression at day 16 of gestation when compared to pregnant rats fed ad libitum.This study illustrates for the first time through molecular and immunological approaches the NucB2 expression and regulation on rat placenta and that this peptide is regulated throughout pregnancy. Consistent with previous reports, our results provide additional evidence supporting the role of NucB2 protein as an anorexigenic peptide that may contribute to the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. NucB2/Nesfatin-1 might play an important metabolic role during pregnancy and fetal development and its energy balance mediating role should be studied in various physiological and pathological conditions throughout gestation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Li H.,Tumor Suppression Group |
Collado M.,Tumor Suppression Group |
Collado M.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela Chus |
Villasante A.,Tumor Suppression Group |
And 9 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell | Year: 2012
The mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional silencing of pluripotency genes in differentiated cells are poorly understood. We have observed that cells lacking the tumor suppressor p27 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the absence of ectopic Sox2. Interestingly, cells and tissues from p27 null mice, including brain, lung, and retina, present an elevated basal expression of Sox2, suggesting that p27 contributes to the repression of Sox2. Furthermore, p27 null iPSCs fail to fully repress Sox2 upon differentiation. Mechanistically, we have found that upon differentiation p27 associates to the SRR2 enhancer of the Sox2 gene together with a p130-E2F4-SIN3A repressive complex. Finally, Sox2 haploinsufficiency genetically rescues some of the phenotypes characteristic of p27 null mice, including gigantism, pituitary hyperplasia, pituitary tumors, and retinal defects. Collectively, these results demonstrate an unprecedented connection between p27 and Sox2 relevant for reprogramming and cancer and for understanding human pathologies associated with p27 germline mutations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Romero-Pico A.,Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias IDIS |
Vazquez M.J.,Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias IDIS |
Gonzalez-Touceda D.,Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias IDIS |
Folgueira C.,Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias IDIS |
And 11 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2013
The opioid system is well recognized as an important regulator of appetite and energy balance. We now hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might modulate the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Using pharmacological and gene silencing approaches, we demonstrate that ghrelin utilizes a hypothalamic κ-opioid receptor (KOR) pathway to increase food intake in rats. Pharmacological blockade of KOR decreases the acute orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Inhibition of KOR expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is sufficient to blunt ghrelin-induced food intake. By contrast, the specific inhibition of KOR expression in the ventral tegmental area does not affect central ghrelin-induced feeding. This new pathway is independent of ghrelin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation, but modulates the levels of the transcription factors and orexigenic neuropeptides triggered by ghrelin to finally stimulate feeding. Our novel data implicate hypothalamic KOR signaling in the orexigenic action of ghrelin. © 2013 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
PubMed | University of Santiago de Compostela, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela and Institute Investigaciones Sanitarias IDIS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nuclear medicine and biology | Year: 2016
Current guidelines for brain PET imaging advice against the injection of diazepam prior to brain FDG-PET examination in order to avoid possible interactions of benzodiazepines with the radiotracer uptake. Nevertheless, many patients undergoing PET studies are likely to be under chronic treatment with benzodiazepines, for example due to the use of different medications such as sleeping pills. Animal studies may provide an extensive and accurate estimation of the effect of benzodiazepines on brain metabolism in a well-defined and controlled framework.This study aims at evaluating the impact of benzodiazepines on brain FDG uptake after single-dose administration and chronic treatment in rats.Twelve Sprague-Dawley healthy rats were randomly divided into two groups, one treated with diazepam and the other used as control group. Both groups underwent PET/CT examinations after single-dose and chronic administration of diazepam (treated) or saline (controls) during twenty-eight days. Different atlas-based quantification methods were used to explore differences on the total uptake and uptake patterns of FDG between both groups.Our analysis revealed a significant reduction of global FDG uptake after acute (-16.2%) and chronic (-23.2%) administration of diazepam. Moreover, a strong trend pointing to differences between acute and chronic administrations (p<0.08) was also observed. Uptake levels returned to normal after interrupting the administration of diazepam. On the other hand, patterns of FDG uptake were not affected by the administration of diazepam.The administration of diazepam causes a progressive decrease of the FDG global uptake in the rat brain, but it does not change local patterns within the brain. Under these conditions, visual assessment and quantification methods based on regional differences such as asymmetry indexes or SPM statistical analysis would still be valid when administrating this medication.