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Zucchini A.E.,Institute Investigaciones Medicas Alfredo Lanari
Salud(i)Ciencia | Year: 2010

Ageing is accompanied by a decline in the physiological functional capacity, led by structural and functional changes in the arterial walls. At renal level, those alterations may result in glomerulosclerosis, loss of functioning nephrons and reduced glomerular filtration. These changes are not uniform in all human beings, as genetic predisposition and exposure to cardiovascular risk factors play a significant part in their development. The definition of chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes the presence of albuminuria, and the estimation of the renal function via formulas such as Crockoft-Gault or MDRD, inadvertently result in an exaggerated prevalence of CKD among the over 65s. The mere deterioration of the renal function, in the absence of progressive cardiovascular or other related diseases is not clinically significant; however, there may exist defective water and electrolyte management, increased sensitivity to volumetric changes and to the effects of several drugs. The incidence of primary kidney diseases is similar to that observed in young populations, the exception being the occurrence of light chain excretions, myelomas and amylodosis. CKD prevalence in the over 70s climbed to 48% according to the NAHNES III study. In Argentina, 24.6% of dialysis admissions are aged between 75 and 79. Active policy measures are required in order to improve the renal health care of the elderly. Copyrigth © Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Científica (SIIC), 2010. Source

Pereira C.A.,Institute Investigaciones Medicas Alfredo Lanari | Silber A.M.,University of Sao Paulo
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Glucose, an almost universally used energy and carbon source, is processed through several well-known metabolic pathways, primarily glycolysis. Glucose uptake is considered to be the first step in glycolysis. In kinetoplastids, a protozoan group that includes relevant human pathogens, the importance of glucose uptake in different phases of the life cycles is well established, and hexose transporters have been proposed as targets for therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of these hexose transporters. Hexose transporters contain an intracellular N- and C- termini, and 12 transmembrane spans connected by alternate intracellular and extracellular loops. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that the evolutionary rate of the transmembrane span is different from that of the whole sequence and that it is possible to define evolutionary units inside the sequence. The phylogeny of whole molecules was compared to that of their transmembrane spans and the loops connecting the transmembrane spans. We show that the evolutionary units in these proteins primarily consist of clustered rather than individual transmembrane spans. These analyses demonstrate that there are evolutionary constraints on the organization of these proteins; more specifically, the order of the transmembrane spans along the protein is highly conserved. Finally, we defined a signature sequence for the identification of kinetoplastid hexose transporters. © 2012 Pereira, Silber. Source

Liapikou A.,Sotiria Chest Hospital | Polverino E.,University of Barcelona | Cilloniz C.,University of Barcelona | Peyrani P.,University of Louisville | And 27 more authors.
Respiratory Care | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is the leading cause of death among long-term care patients and the second most common cause of transfers to acute care facilities. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence, microbiology, and outcomes for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and NHAP. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 5,160 patients from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database was performed. World regions were defined as the United States and Canada (I), Latin America (II), and Europe (III). RESULTS: From a total of 5,160 hospitalized patients with CAP, NHAP was identified in 287 (5.6%) patients. Mean age was 80 y. NHAP distribution by region was 6% in region I, 3% in region II, and 7% in region III. Subjects with NHAP had higher frequencies of neurological disease, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and renal failure than did subjects with CAP (P < .001). ICU admission was required in 32 (12%) subjects. Etiology was defined in 68 (23%) subjects with NHAP and 1,300 (27%) with CAP. The most common pathogens identified in NHAP included Streptococcus pneumoniae (31%), Staphylococcus species (31%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7%). Presentation of NHAP more frequently included pleural effusions (34% vs 21%, P < .001) and multilobar involvement (31% vs 24%, P < .001). Thirty-day hospital mortality was statistically greater among subjects with NHAP than among those with CAP (42% vs 18%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Worldwide, only a very small proportion of hospitalized patients with CAP present with NHAP; the poor outcomes for these patients may be due primarily to a higher number of comorbidities compared with patients without NHAP. © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises. Source

Jaimes N.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Dusza S.W.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Quigley E.A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Braun R.P.,University of Zurich | And 15 more authors.
Australasian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Background/Objectives Dermoscopy aids in clinical decision-making. However, time pressure is a common reason precluding its use. We evaluated the effect of time on lesion recognition and management decisions utilising clinical and dermoscopic images. Method In all, 100 dermoscopic images were presented to 15 dermatologists with experience in dermoscopy and seven non-experts (dermatology residents). Each lesion was displayed thrice in succession. The dermoscopic image was initially presented for 1 s (t1). The same dermoscopic image was shown again without time constraints (t2) and then a final time with additional images of the clinical context (t3). Participants provided a diagnosis, their level of confidence and biopsy predilection after evaluating each image. Results For benign lesions, both groups rarely changed their diagnosis. However, an improvement in the number of correct benign diagnoses was observed when the lesion was shown in a clinical context. For malignant lesions, both groups improved when more time and clinical context was given; nevertheless, non-experts were more likely to change the diagnosis towards the correct one as more time was given and tended to perform more biopsies, in particular of benign lesions. Limitations were a small number of participants and an artificial study setting. Conclusion Dermoscopy uses analytical and non-analytical reasoning approaches. We suggest that non-analytical reasoning is employed when rapid clinical decisions need to be made, especially during the evaluation of benign lesions. We conclude that dermoscopy is relatively rapid and non-time-consuming technique that adds relevant information and guides clinicians towards appropriate management decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists. Source

Pons-Estel G.J.,Institute Clinic Of Medicina I Dermatologia | Pons-Estel G.J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Alarcon G.S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Burgos P.I.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 17 more authors.
Lupus | Year: 2013

Objectives: The objective of this paper is to assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (n = 1480) from Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus (GLADEL's) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time dependent in alternative analyses. Results: Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.2% were African-Latin Americans, 42.5% Mestizos, and 45.3% Caucasians (p = 0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19-2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02-5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, for every five years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99). Conclusions: Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

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