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Daniault N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mercier H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lherminier P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Sarafanov A.,RAS Shirshov Institute of Oceanology | And 7 more authors.
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2016

The decadal mean circulation in the northern North Atlantic was assessed for the early 21st century from repeated ship-based measurements along the Greenland-Portugal OVIDE line, from satellite altimetry and from earlier reported transports across 59.5°N and at the Greenland-Scotland sills. The remarkable quantitative agreement between all data sets allowed us to draw circulation pathways with a high level of confidence. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) system is composed of three main branches, referred to as the northern, central and southern branches, which were traced from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), to the Irminger Sea, the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the subtropical gyre. At OVIDE, the northern and central branches of the NAC fill the whole water column and their top-to-bottom integrated transports were estimated at 11.0 ± 3 Sv and 14.2 ± 6.4 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s−1), respectively. Those two branches feed the cyclonic circulation in the Iceland Basin and the flow over the Reykjanes Ridge into the Irminger Sea. This cross-ridge flow was estimated at 11.3 ± 4.2 Sv westward, north of 58.5°N. The southern NAC branch is strongly surface-intensified and most of its top-to-bottom integrated transport, estimated at 16.6 ± 2 Sv, is found in the upper layer. It is composed of two parts: the northern part contributes to the flow over the Rockall Plateau and through the Rockall Trough toward the Iceland-Scotland Ridge; the southern part feeds the anticyclonic circulation toward the subtropical gyre. Summing over the three NAC branches, the top-to-bottom transport of the NAC across OVIDE was estimated at 41.8 ± 3.7 Sv. Because of the surface-intensification of the southern NAC branch, the intermediate water is transported to the northeast Atlantic mostly by the northern and central branches of the NAC (11.9 ± 1.8 Sv eastward). This water circulates cyclonically in the Iceland Basin and anticyclonically in the West European Basin, with similar transport intensities. In the deep layer of the Iceland Basin, Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) spreads southwestward along three pathways on the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge. The associated transport was estimated at 3.2 ± 0.4 Sv. The two shallowest pathways turn around the Reykjanes Ridge toward the Irminger Sea where they head northward. A northeastward transport of deep water is observed in the deep extension of the northern and central branches of the NAC, east of the MAR. In the Irminger Sea our transport estimates for the Irminger Current, Irminger Gyre, East Greenland Irminger Current and Deep Western Boundary Current are in line with previous work. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Fuentes-Santos I.,Institute Investigaciones Marinas | Labarta U.,Institute Investigaciones Marinas
Regional Studies in Marine Science | Year: 2015

Larval settlement and recruitment play an important role on the population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates, and are key factors in the management of aquaculture industries. In order to check the current strategies of mussel seed gathering from collector ropes in the Ria of Ares-Betanzos (NW Spain), this work analyses the seasonal and spatial variability of larval settlement and recruitment of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as the relationship between settlement and recruitment. Our results highlight the importance of the hydrographic characteristics of the Ría de Ares-Betanzos on the spatial distribution of larval settlement and on the early post-settlement mortality, which determines recruitment success. The spatial distribution of larval settlement, with higher abundances in the northern-shore but significant larval retention in the southern culture areas, is in agreement with the positive subtidal circulation of this embayment and the larger residence times in the southern shore. The positive subtidal circulation of the Ría favours larval transport from the culture areas located in the south to the northern shore, while the larger residence times allow larval retention in the southern shore. The strong linear relationship between settlement and recruitment suggest density-independent mortality and allowed estimating recruitment abundances and short-term survival rates. The highest and lowest post-settlement mortalities were registered at the most external and sheltered locations respectively, suggesting that the vulnerability to the hydrodynamic stress may be the main cause of early post-settlement mortality of mussel juveniles on suspended substrates. Our results confirm that the sheltered culture polygons located in the inner area of the Ría of Ares-Betanzos are favourable environments for the recruitment of Mytilus galloprovincialis spat, supporting the current strategies of seed gathering from collector ropes in the Ría of Ares-Betanzos. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Figueras A.,Institute Investigaciones Marinas | Novoa B.,Institute Investigaciones Marinas
Arbor | Year: 2014

As a result of overfishing and the escalating cost of fishing, fisheries are unable to provide all the marine products that the world market demands. This shortfall is being met by aquaculture. After Japan and Norway, Spain is one of the world’s leading consumers of fish and seafood. To reduce the losses from disease, increase growth and reproduction rates and juveniles survival… Biotechnology can help achieve these goals. However, there is more than food production in the use of Biotechnology in the marine world. Generation of biodiesel, medicines or new materials have their roots on the application of biotechnology to the marine world. © 2014 CSIC. Source

The bacterium Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from sediment and water samples from estuary lagoon Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), Colombian Caribbean. The aim of the work was to use this microorganism as an alternative in the degradation of organic persistent pollutants. B. licheniformis was able to tolerate aerobic conditions and concentrations of the pesticide organochlorine, aldrin. The test was made during 30 days with 60 ng/L of aldrin in order to evaluate the degradation capacity of this bacterium. Identification and isolation of B. licheniformis was made through morphological (Gram test), as well as biochemical characterization (BBL Crystal system). Aldrin concentration was determined by gas chromatography. Results show that B. licheniformis had a degradation capacity of 24% from total concentration. Factors like solar light exposition and volatilization had an extra influence of 31% on aldrin degradation. Source

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