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Buenos Aires, Argentina

Alvarez I.B.,University of Buenos Aires | Pasquinelli V.,University of Buenos Aires | Jurado J.O.,University of Buenos Aires | Abbate E.,Hospital F.J. Muniz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

Tuberculous pleurisy allows the study of specific cells at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Among pleural lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells are a major source of interferon γ (IFN-γ), and their functions are regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors. Programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) are recognized inhibitory receptors in adaptive immunity, but their role during innate immunity remains poorly understood. We investigated the PD-1:PDL1/ PD-L2 pathway on NK cell effector functions in peripheral blood and pleural fluid from patients with tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis stimulation significantly up-regulated PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 levels on NK cells. Interestingly, a direct correlation between PD-1 and IFN-γ expression on NK cells was observed. Moreover, blockade of the PD-1 pathway markedly augmented lytic degranulation and IFN-γ production of NK cells against M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, PD-1+ NK cells displayed a diminished IFN-γ mean fluorescence intensity, denoting the relevance of PD-1 on IFN-γ regulation. Together, we described a novel inhibitory role played by PD-1:PD-L interactions in innate immunity in tuberculosis. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Source

Vazquez R.,CONICET | Riveiro M.E.,CONICET | Mondillo C.,CONICET | Perazzo J.C.,Laboratorio Of Hipertension Portal Y Encefalopatia Hepatica | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology

The development of tumor-selective drugs with low systemic toxicity has always been a major challenge in cancer treatment. Our group previously identified the 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC) as a potential chemotherapeutic agent due to its potent, selective anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on several cancer cell lines over peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, there are still no published reports that can explain such selectivity of action. Herein, we addressed this question by using the U-937 promonocytic leukemia cell line, which can be forced to differentiate into a monocyte-like phenotype in vitro. U-937 cells differentiation is dependent on the nuclear expression of p21Cip1/WAF1, a protein that is absent in immature U-937 cells but present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of normal DHMC-resistant monocytes. Considering that induction of differentiation rendered U-937 cells resistant to DHMC, we evaluated the possible causal role of cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 in the onset of such resistance by employing U-937 cells stably transfected with a ZnCl2-inducible p21Cip1/WAF1 variant lacking the nuclear localization signal (U-937/CB6-DNLS-p21 cells). Expression of cytoplasmic p21Cip1/ WAF1 did not induce differentiation of the cells but turned them resistant to DHMC through inhibition of JNK, a crucial mediator of DHMC-induced apoptosis in U-937 cells. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of DHMC in Balb/c mice indicated that DHMC administered intraperitoneally at doses up to 100 mg/kg induced no systemic damage. Collectively, our results explain for the first time the selective cytotoxicity of DHMC for tumor cells over normal monocytes, and encourage further in vivo studies on this compound as potential anti-leukemic agent. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Fujiwara K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Fujiwara K.,Red Cross | Allison R.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Allison R.D.,U.S. Navy | And 8 more authors.

Recent studies have found hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the majority of presumed recovered subjects. We investigated this unexpected finding using samples from patients whose HCV RNA and anti-HCV status had been serially confirmed. HCV RNA was detected in PBMCs from 66 of 67 chronic HCV carriers. Subpopulation analysis revealed that the viral load (log copies/106 cells) in B cells (4.14 ± 0.71) was higher than in total PBMCs (3.62 ± 0.71; P < 0.05), T cells (1.67 ± 0.88; P < 0.05), and non-B/T cells (2.48 ± 1.15; P < 0.05). HCV negative-strand RNA was not detected in PBMCs from any of 25 chronically infected patients. No residual viral RNA was detected in total PBMCs or plasma of 59 presumed recovered subjects (11 spontaneous and 48 treatment induced) using nested real-time polymerase chain reaction with a detection limit of 2 copies/μg RNA (from ∼1 × 106 cells). PBMCs from 2 healthy HCV-negative blood donors became HCV RNA positive, with B-cell predominance, when mixed in vitro with HCV RNA-positive plasma, thus passively mimicking cells from chronic HCV carriers. No residual HCV was detected in liver or other tissues from 2 spontaneously recovered chimpanzees. Conclusion: (1) HCV RNA was detected in PBMCs of most chronic HCV carriers and was predominant in the B-cell subpopulation; (2) HCV detected in PBMCs was in a nonreplicative form; (3) HCV passively adsorbed to PBMCs of healthy controls in vitro, becoming indistinguishable from PBMCs of chronic HCV carriers; and (4) residual HCV was not detected in plasma or PBMCs of any spontaneous or treatment-recovered subjects or in chimpanzee liver, suggesting that the classic pattern of recovery from HCV infection is generally equivalent to viral eradication. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

Rearte B.,CONICET | Landoni V.,CONICET | Laborde E.,CONICET | Fernandez G.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology

Gram-negative infections can result in endotoxic shock, which is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Most of the undesirable effects in sepsis and septic shock have been ascribed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a normal constituent of the bacterial wall. The response to LPS involves rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-γ] and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β and glucocorticoids (GC), which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the principal cause of the non-specific immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that while the maintenance of tolerance is dependent upon GC, the establishment of tolerance by LPS could be inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC. Conversely, we demonstrated that mifepristone (RU486), a known GC receptor antagonist, was capable of inducing a transient and reversible disruption of endotoxin tolerance, also permitting partial restoration of the humoral immune response in LPS tolerant/immunosuppressed mice. These results are encouraging for the management of immunosuppression in sepsis and/or non-infectious shock, and deserve further investigation in the future. © 2009 British Society for Immunology. Source

Finiasz M.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas | Otero C.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas | Bezrodnik L.,Immunology Service | Fink S.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas
Current Medicinal Chemistry

Atopic asthma results from airway inflammation triggered by an environmental allergen. Symptoms include wheezing, dyspnea and cough, airway narrowing and/or hyperresponsiveness to several inhaled stimuli. Inflammation develops in a two-phase fashion. The first phase after exposure to the allergen consists of degranulation and release of both histamine and other stored preformed inflammatory mediators as well as newly synthesized ones, including cytokines, all of which increase mucus secretion and smooth muscle contraction. The second phase occurs later and lasts longer; it is due to different molecules: several cytokines and chemokines, arachidonic acid derivatives, enzymes such as metalloproteinases and cell adhesion molecules. Cytokines are key players in the chronic inflammation in asthma patients, but details on their role and interactions still remain undetermined. Recent evidence suggests that allergic asthma is a multifaceted condition actively controlled by effector as well as regulatory T cells (Tregs). T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 cells increase airway inflammation, while Tregs are anti-inflammatory. Cytokines are involved in the development and activation of all T cell subpopulations. They are also involved directly or indirectly in most approaches to asthma treatment. Several cytokines have been tested as therapeutic targets and some of the currently used therapies like corticosteroids, beta agonists and allergen immunotherapy affect cytokine production. The increased knowledge on cytokine interplay and lymphocyte subsets should generate new therapeutic strategies in the near future. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

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