Coraglia A.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Felippo M.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Schierloh P.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
de Bracco M.M.D.E.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells with T FH phenotype from two asymptomatic XLP patients were studied. Normal/high numbers of CXCR5+, CD4+ T cells coexpressing PD-1 were demonstrated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these patients responded to sub-optimal PHA/IL-2 stimulation upregulating ICOS and CD40L and increasing intracellular expression of IL-10, IL-21 and IL-4 by CD4+ T FH cells. However when compared to N, the time profile of activation and cytokine synthesis was different in XLP and N. While ICOS and CD40L expression in N decreased after 6-8days, it continued to increase or was maintained in XLP cultures. Intracellular IL-10, IL-21 and IL-4 reached higher values in XLP than N after 8days. Rather than the absence of T FH cells or their intrinsic inability to respond to stimuli, differences in the time profile of their response could contribute to impair their role as helpers of B lymphocytes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Fujiwara K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Fujiwara K.,Red Cross |
Allison R.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Allison R.D.,U.S. Navy |
And 8 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2013
Recent studies have found hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the majority of presumed recovered subjects. We investigated this unexpected finding using samples from patients whose HCV RNA and anti-HCV status had been serially confirmed. HCV RNA was detected in PBMCs from 66 of 67 chronic HCV carriers. Subpopulation analysis revealed that the viral load (log copies/106 cells) in B cells (4.14 ± 0.71) was higher than in total PBMCs (3.62 ± 0.71; P < 0.05), T cells (1.67 ± 0.88; P < 0.05), and non-B/T cells (2.48 ± 1.15; P < 0.05). HCV negative-strand RNA was not detected in PBMCs from any of 25 chronically infected patients. No residual viral RNA was detected in total PBMCs or plasma of 59 presumed recovered subjects (11 spontaneous and 48 treatment induced) using nested real-time polymerase chain reaction with a detection limit of 2 copies/μg RNA (from ∼1 × 106 cells). PBMCs from 2 healthy HCV-negative blood donors became HCV RNA positive, with B-cell predominance, when mixed in vitro with HCV RNA-positive plasma, thus passively mimicking cells from chronic HCV carriers. No residual HCV was detected in liver or other tissues from 2 spontaneously recovered chimpanzees. Conclusion: (1) HCV RNA was detected in PBMCs of most chronic HCV carriers and was predominant in the B-cell subpopulation; (2) HCV detected in PBMCs was in a nonreplicative form; (3) HCV passively adsorbed to PBMCs of healthy controls in vitro, becoming indistinguishable from PBMCs of chronic HCV carriers; and (4) residual HCV was not detected in plasma or PBMCs of any spontaneous or treatment-recovered subjects or in chimpanzee liver, suggesting that the classic pattern of recovery from HCV infection is generally equivalent to viral eradication. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Alvarez I.B.,University of Buenos Aires |
Pasquinelli V.,University of Buenos Aires |
Jurado J.O.,University of Buenos Aires |
Abbate E.,Hospital Fj Muniz |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010
Tuberculous pleurisy allows the study of specific cells at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Among pleural lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells are a major source of interferon γ (IFN-γ), and their functions are regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors. Programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) are recognized inhibitory receptors in adaptive immunity, but their role during innate immunity remains poorly understood. We investigated the PD-1:PDL1/ PD-L2 pathway on NK cell effector functions in peripheral blood and pleural fluid from patients with tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis stimulation significantly up-regulated PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 levels on NK cells. Interestingly, a direct correlation between PD-1 and IFN-γ expression on NK cells was observed. Moreover, blockade of the PD-1 pathway markedly augmented lytic degranulation and IFN-γ production of NK cells against M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, PD-1+ NK cells displayed a diminished IFN-γ mean fluorescence intensity, denoting the relevance of PD-1 on IFN-γ regulation. Together, we described a novel inhibitory role played by PD-1:PD-L interactions in innate immunity in tuberculosis. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Fuxman Bass J.I.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Fuxman Bass J.I.,University of Buenos Aires |
Russo D.M.,CONICET |
Gabelloni M.L.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010
We previously demonstrated that extracellular bacterial DNA activates neutrophils through a CpG- and TLR9-independent mechanism. Biofilms are microbial communities enclosed in a polymeric matrix that play a critical role in the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. Because extracellular DNA is a key component of biofilms of different bacterial species, the aim of this study was to determine whether it plays a role in the ability of biofilms to induce human neutrophil activation. We found that degradation of matrix extracellular DNA with DNase I markedly reduced the capacity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to induce the release of the neutrophil proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β (>75%); reduced the upregulation of neutrophil activation markers CD18, CD11b, and CD66b (p < 0.001); reduced the number of bacteria phagocytosed per neutrophil contacting the biofilm; and reduced the production of neutrophil extracellular traps. Consistent with these findings, we found that biofilms formed by the lasI rhlI P. aeruginosa mutant strain, exhibiting a very low content of matrix extracellular DNA, displayed a lower capacity to stimulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines by neutrophils, which was not decreased further by DNase I treatment. Together, our findings support that matrix extracellular DNA is a major proinflammatory component of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Castaman G.,San Bortolo Hospital |
Montgomery R.R.,Blood Research Institute |
Meschengieser S.S.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Haberichter S.L.,Blood Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Haemophilia | Year: 2010
In this paper, the recent developments in the diagnosis and laboratory issues of von Willebrand's disease (VWD) are presented. Dr. Castaman reviews the functional tests available for the diagnosis of VWD and their pathophysiological significance, focusing on which tests are best used in the diagnosis and classification of VWD. Dr Montgomery reviews an emerging issue that is accelerated clearance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) occurring in some variants of VWD. This phenotype can be suspected by the presence of an increased ratio between the VWF propeptide and the VWF antigen. These patients have typically a robust, but short-lived increase of FVIII and VWF after desmopressin. Dr Meschengieser reviews the determinants of bleeding after surgery in patients with VWD, emphasizing the role of bleeding history in predicting this risk. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vazquez R.,CONICET |
Riveiro M.E.,CONICET |
Mondillo C.,CONICET |
Perazzo J.C.,Laboratorio Of Hipertension Portal Y Encefalopatia Hepatica |
And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2013
The development of tumor-selective drugs with low systemic toxicity has always been a major challenge in cancer treatment. Our group previously identified the 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC) as a potential chemotherapeutic agent due to its potent, selective anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on several cancer cell lines over peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, there are still no published reports that can explain such selectivity of action. Herein, we addressed this question by using the U-937 promonocytic leukemia cell line, which can be forced to differentiate into a monocyte-like phenotype in vitro. U-937 cells differentiation is dependent on the nuclear expression of p21Cip1/WAF1, a protein that is absent in immature U-937 cells but present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of normal DHMC-resistant monocytes. Considering that induction of differentiation rendered U-937 cells resistant to DHMC, we evaluated the possible causal role of cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 in the onset of such resistance by employing U-937 cells stably transfected with a ZnCl2-inducible p21Cip1/WAF1 variant lacking the nuclear localization signal (U-937/CB6-DNLS-p21 cells). Expression of cytoplasmic p21Cip1/ WAF1 did not induce differentiation of the cells but turned them resistant to DHMC through inhibition of JNK, a crucial mediator of DHMC-induced apoptosis in U-937 cells. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of DHMC in Balb/c mice indicated that DHMC administered intraperitoneally at doses up to 100 mg/kg induced no systemic damage. Collectively, our results explain for the first time the selective cytotoxicity of DHMC for tumor cells over normal monocytes, and encourage further in vivo studies on this compound as potential anti-leukemic agent. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rearte B.,CONICET |
Landoni V.,CONICET |
Laborde E.,CONICET |
Fernandez G.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010
Gram-negative infections can result in endotoxic shock, which is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Most of the undesirable effects in sepsis and septic shock have been ascribed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a normal constituent of the bacterial wall. The response to LPS involves rapid secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-γ] and the concomitant induction of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β and glucocorticoids (GC), which render the host temporarily refractory to subsequent lethal doses of LPS challenge in a process known as LPS or endotoxin tolerance. Although protective from the development of sepsis or systemic inflammation, endotoxin tolerance has also been pointed out as the principal cause of the non-specific immunosuppression described in these patients. In this report we demonstrate, using a mouse model, that while the maintenance of tolerance is dependent upon GC, the establishment of tolerance by LPS could be inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC. Conversely, we demonstrated that mifepristone (RU486), a known GC receptor antagonist, was capable of inducing a transient and reversible disruption of endotoxin tolerance, also permitting partial restoration of the humoral immune response in LPS tolerant/immunosuppressed mice. These results are encouraging for the management of immunosuppression in sepsis and/or non-infectious shock, and deserve further investigation in the future. © 2009 British Society for Immunology.
Maggini J.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Mirkin G.,University of Buenos Aires |
Bognanni I.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Holmberg J.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
In recent years it has become clear that the therapeutic properties of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are related not only to their ability to differentiate into different lineages but also to their capacity to suppress the immune response. We here studied the influence of MSC on macrophage function. Using mouse thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (M) stimulated with LPS, we found that MSC markedly suppressed the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12p70 and interferon-γ while increased the production of IL-10 and IL-12p40. Similar results were observed using supernatants from MSC suggesting that factor(s) constitutively released by MSC are involved. Supporting a role for PGE 2 we observed that acetylsalicylic acid impaired the ability of MSC to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and to stimulate the production of IL-10 by LPS-stimulated M. Moreover, we found that MSC constitutively produce PGE2 at levels able to inhibit the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by activated M. MSC also inhibited the up-regulation of CD86 and MHC class II in LPS-stimulated M impairing their ability to activate antigen-specific T CD4+ cells. On the other hand, they stimulated the uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by M. Of note, MSC turned M into cells highly susceptible to infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi increasing more than 5-fold the rate of M infection. Using a model of inflammation triggered by s.c. implantation of glass cylinders, we found that MSC stimulated the recruitment of macrophages which showed a low expression of CD86 and the MHC class II molecule Ia b and a high ability to produce IL-10 and IL-12p40, but not IL-12 p70. In summary, our results suggest that MSC switch M into a regulatory profile characterized by a low ability to produce inflammatory cytokines, a high ability to phagocyte apoptotic cells, and a marked increase in their susceptibility to infection by intracellular pathogens. © 2010 Maggini et al.
Finiasz M.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Otero C.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Bezrodnik L.,Hospital Of Ninos Ricardo Gutierrez |
Fink S.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011
Atopic asthma results from airway inflammation triggered by an environmental allergen. Symptoms include wheezing, dyspnea and cough, airway narrowing and/or hyperresponsiveness to several inhaled stimuli. Inflammation develops in a two-phase fashion. The first phase after exposure to the allergen consists of degranulation and release of both histamine and other stored preformed inflammatory mediators as well as newly synthesized ones, including cytokines, all of which increase mucus secretion and smooth muscle contraction. The second phase occurs later and lasts longer; it is due to different molecules: several cytokines and chemokines, arachidonic acid derivatives, enzymes such as metalloproteinases and cell adhesion molecules. Cytokines are key players in the chronic inflammation in asthma patients, but details on their role and interactions still remain undetermined. Recent evidence suggests that allergic asthma is a multifaceted condition actively controlled by effector as well as regulatory T cells (Tregs). T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 cells increase airway inflammation, while Tregs are anti-inflammatory. Cytokines are involved in the development and activation of all T cell subpopulations. They are also involved directly or indirectly in most approaches to asthma treatment. Several cytokines have been tested as therapeutic targets and some of the currently used therapies like corticosteroids, beta agonists and allergen immunotherapy affect cytokine production. The increased knowledge on cytokine interplay and lymphocyte subsets should generate new therapeutic strategies in the near future. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Zalar A.,Hospital Juan A Fernandez |
Figueroa M.I.,Hospital Juan A Fernandez |
Ruibal-Ares B.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
Bare P.,Institute Investigaciones Hematologicas |
And 3 more authors.
Antiviral Research | Year: 2010
Mucosal surfaces play a major role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and pathogenesis. Since the role of intestinal macrophages as viral reservoirs during chronic HIV-1 infection has not been elucidated, we investigated the effects of successful therapy on intestinal HIV-1 persistence. Intestinal macrophage infection was demonstrated by the expression of p24 antigen by flow cytometry and by the presence of proviral DNA, assessed by PCR. Proviral DNA was detected in duodenal mucosa of HIV-infected patients under treatment with undetectable plasma viral load. These findings confirm that intestinal macrophages can act as viral reservoirs and permit HIV-1 production even after viral suppression following antiretroviral therapy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.