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Curti R.N.,University of Buenos Aires | de la Vega A.J.,DuPont Pioneer | Andrade A.J.,National University of Jujuy | Bramardi S.J.,National University of Comahue | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Quinoa is an important Andean grain crop grown in a wide range of tropical and temperate environments. Time to flowering is an important trait determining grain yield. This work aimed to understand how responses to photoperiod and temperature might alter plant leaf and floral development. To assess the likely degree of G × E interactions, eleven quinoa accessions from a wide range of environments of origin within Northwest Argentina were grown in several sowing dates over two seasons at a high altitude site. In a third season at a low altitude site, a subset of six accessions planted in pots in the field was exposed to two artificially extended and a control (natural) photoperiod. Time to the appearance of floral buds and anthesis were recorded as was leaf number. A photothermal model developed for quinoa was used to compare responses to photoperiod. Plant development rates to visible floral buds and anthesis stages and phyllochron varied widely amongst accessions and across environments within a short day response though phyllochron varied mostly during the reproductive phase. There was a very strong association between time to flowering and altitude of origin (r = -0.98), mean temperature of the wettest quarter (r = 0.98) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values (r = 0.73). Photoperiod sensitivity was higher for accessions from the lowlands (normally late flowering), while temperature sensitivity was greatest for accessions from the highlands (early flowering); most variation for these traits detected at the species level was found in North West Argentina. Genotype by environment interactions for yield were related to the traits examined in this study and considering their high heritability it is suggested that quinoa breeding programs targeted for specific adaptation to a wide range of environments can be developed from this germplasm. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Semmartin M.,University of Buenos Aires | Semmartin M.,CONICET | Semmartin M.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Bollani M.V.,University of Buenos Aires | And 4 more authors.
Interciencia | Year: 2012

Agriculture provides food for the people and generates hard currency for exporting countries. One of the moving forces is the production of the knowledge and technology required for the sustained growth of the agricultural sector. The relationship between the production of a primary good and the generation of knowledge to produce it was analyzed in leading countries in their respective production. Upon studying the number of publications in scientific journals a general positive correlation is found between national production of diverse crops and the generation of knowledge about each of them. However, in general industrialized countries contributed proportionately more to knowledge generation than to physical crop production and most of their scientific output was published in international journals with higher impact. In contrast, in the group of less industrialized countries production, in general, was proportionately larger in grain than in knowledge, except for certain crops in Brazil, China and India, and most of the knowledge produced was disseminated in journals of lower impact, with the exception of Argentina, which showed an intermediate pattern. In general, the number of published articles is associated positively to the funds assigned to research and development, notably higher in industrialized countries, both in absolute terms and in relation to their gross domestic product. Recognizing the pivotal role of science for agricultural progress will be crucial for emerging economies and should be a central theme in their public policies. Source


Maddonni G.A.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Maddonni G.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Martinez-Bercovich J.,Dow AgroScience Argentina S.A.
International Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

The use of narrow row spacing for the different landscape positions of a field could punish maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield. Two experiments were conducted (2006/07 and 2007/08) at different landscape positions in the Inland Pampas of Argentina. Hybrid DK190MG was grown at the commonest plant density used at each landscape position (approximately 5.1 plants/m2 at the summit, 6.5 plants/m2 at shoulder-slope position, and 7.6 plants/m2 at foot-slope position) with three row spacings (0.38 m, 0.52 m, and 0.38 m in a 2 × 1 skip-row pattern). At the silking stage of maize crops, soil water content (0-200 cm depth) and maximum light capture differed (0.05 < P < 0.001) among landscape positions but were similar among row spacings. Differences in grain yield among landscape positions (mean 806, 893, and 1104 g/m2 at the summit, shoulder-slope position, and foot-slope position, resp.) were related to kernel number/m2 (r = 0.94), which was closely related (r = 0.90) to light capture around silking. Grain yield reductions (6 to 20%) were recorded when crops were cultivated in rows 0.38 m apart. The skip-row pattern did not improve grain yield. Maize grain yield was optimized in rows 0.52 m apart along the sandy landscape positions of the fields. © 2014 Gustavo Ángel Maddonni and Joaquín Martínez-Bercovich. Source


Gundel P.E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Gundel P.E.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Perez L.I.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Helander M.,University of Turku | Saikkonen K.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

We propose that symbiotically modified organisms (SMOs) should be taken into account in sustainable agriculture. In this opinion article, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the literature, with a particular focus on the potential of SMOs in forage and turf grass production, to determine the impact of endophytes in grasses on livestock, the grassland ecosystems, and associated environments. SMOs can be incorporated into breeding programs to improve grass yield, resistance to pests and weeds, and forage quality for livestock by decreasing the level of toxic alkaloids. However, the benefits of these selected grass-endophyte symbiota appear to be highly dependent on grass cultivar, fungal strain, and environmental conditions, requiring a comprehensive understanding of the genetic bases and phenotypic plasticity of the traits of the plant-microbe unit in different environments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


D'Andrea K.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Piedra C.V.,University of Buenos Aires | Piedra C.V.,Institute Investigaciones Fisiologicas y Ecologicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura | Mandolino C.I.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 5 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2016

Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight (KW) and grain yield depend on plant growth during active grain filling and reserves use. The objective of our study was to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic variation in these traits in a family of recombinant inbred lines (RIL). In two field experiments we measured plant grain yield (PGY) and its components (KW and kernel number per plant, KNP), biomass production per plant and per kernel during active grain filling, and apparent reserves use (ARU) per plant (ARUP, difference between PGY and plant biomass production during active grain filling) and per kernel (ARUK, difference between KW and plant biomass production per kernel during active grain filling). Heritability (h2) and phenotypic plasticity were computed for all traits. Large differences were always evident among genotypes, but phenotypic plasticity was (i) low for KW and plant biomass at R2 and physiological maturity; (ii) intermediate for KNP and PGY; and (iii) high for plant growth, plant growth per kernel after R2, and ARUs. Traits with highest h2 were KW (0.70), KNP (0.61), and ARUP (0.59). Final KW was related to plant growth per kernel (r2 = 0.64; P < 0.001) but not to ARU K, and ARUP was driven (r2 ≥ 0.49; P < 0.001) by KNP. Because of its positive relationship with KNP (main determinant of PGY), high h2 and high phenotypic plasticity, breeding must consider the increase in ARUP for improving grain yield, an objective that needs to be coupled with large reserves accumulation before silking to avoid the risk of lodging. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved. Source

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