Institute Investigaciones en Materiales

Ciudad Sahagún, Mexico

Institute Investigaciones en Materiales

Ciudad Sahagún, Mexico
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Velazquez-Benitez A.M.,University of Central Florida | Velazquez-Benitez A.M.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Alvarado J.C.,University of Central Florida | Alvarado J.C.,National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics | And 8 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2015

Low-loss all-fiber photonic lantern (PL) mode multiplexers (MUXs) capable of selectively exciting the first six fiber modes of a multimode fiber (LP01 , LP11a , LP11b , LP21a , LP21b , and LP02 ) are demonstrated. Fabrication of the spatial mode multiplexers was successfully achieved employing a combination of either six step or six graded index fibers of four different core sizes. Insertion losses of 0.2-0.3 dB and mode purities above 9 dB are achieved. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the use of graded index fibers in a PL eases the length requirements of the adiabatic tapered transition and could enable scaling to large numbers. © 2015 Optical Society of America.


Lopez-Aguilar J.E.,University of Swansea | Webster M.F.,University of Swansea | Tamaddon-Jahromi H.R.,University of Swansea | Manero O.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
Rheologica Acta | Year: 2016

This study is concerned with the modelling of thixotropic and viscoelastoplastic material systems, contrasting two approaches in the development of such constitutive models. Accordingly, departure from Oldroyd-B-like behaviour is engineered through, first, a new micellar viscoelastic–thixotropic model (NM_τp_ABS), under the Bautista–Manero framework, and second, a De Souza model. This NM_τp_ABS model, is based on the energy dissipated by a micellar material to change its internal structure, whilst equivalently, the De Souza model employs the second invariant of stress. These models are compared and contrasted in their response through counterpart numerical solutions for axisymmetric contraction–expansion flow. Here, solution features of yielded–unyielded regions, total pressure drop, stress fields and vortex dynamics are analysed under scaling based on the second-Newtonian viscosity-plateau (ηs). With the NM_τp_ABS model, yield-stress features are identified through solvent-fraction β-variation. In contrast, for the De Souza model, counterpart yield-stress features are exposed through yield-stress τ0d-variation. With either yield-stress increase or rise in elasticity, NM_τp_ABS solution response appears symmetrical about the contraction-plane axis, whilst De Souza patterns prove asymmetrical. Under solvent-fraction decrease, NM_τp_ABS response provides yielded-region shrinkage, upstream and downstream vortex suppression, and non-zero N1-region growth. Moreover, under elasticity rise, fading non-zero N1-regions, size-invariant yield-fronts and non-zero N1-regions are observed. In contrast under τ0d increase or rise in elasticity, De Souza solutions manifest enhancement in vortex activity, and non-zero N1-region-intensification and expansion. Furthermore, τ0d-rise provokes De Souza yielded-region shrinkage, whilst elasticity does the opposite. On total pressure drop (Δp), for NM_τp_ABS and with polymeric-fraction increase at fixed Wi, both monotonic rise at low-Wi and decline at higher-Wi are gathered. In contrast, only a monotonic rising trend is recorded with De SouzaΔp-solutions for fixed Wi under τ0d-rise. Furthermore, with Wi-rise and at any fixed τ0eff-level, both models concur in a declining Δp-trend. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Del Castillo L.F.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Andrio A.,Jaume I University | Nava J.A.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Molla S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 2 more authors.
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2014

The permeability and diffusion coefficient of gases such as N2, O2 and CO2 through two polymeric membranes of poly(α-alkyl β,L-aspartate)s (PAALA-n) were determined by the "time-lag" method. One of these membranes was crystalline (PAALA-1) and the other one was amorphous (PAALA-6). The comparison of the obtained result for both membranes is addressed by the calculation of the so called configurational entropy. The study has been done in the range of temperatures 20 °C to 70°C. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Galano A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Francisco-Marquez M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Martinez A.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

The effect of point defects on the free-radical scavenging activity of armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), through a radical adduct formation mechanism, has been studied using density functional theory calculations. SWCNTs with different vacancy (V), adatom (AA), and Stone-Wales (SW) defects have been considered, as well as their pristine partners. All the studied reactions were found to be significantly exothermic and exergonic, which supports their viability. The presence of point defects in the carbon lattice of SWCNTs is predicted to increase their free-radical scavenging activity. The AA and V point defects, involving C atoms with dangling bonds, are expected to cause a larger increase on the SWCNTs' reactivity toward free radicals than the SW and vacancy defects without C atoms with dangling bonds. The studied Stone-Wales point defect shows the largest site-dependent effect on the free-radical scavenging activity of SWCNTs. The presence of nonpolar environments is not expected to change the proposed trends. Characteristic infrared bands in the 3300 and 900-1100 cm-1 regions have been assigned to the νO-H and νC-O vibrations of the OH radical adducts. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Francisco-Marquez M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Galano A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Martinez A.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

Density functional theory calculations have been used to model the efficiency of carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) to act as free radical scavengers, relative to that of their corresponding nonfunctionalized partners. The exergonicity of the reactions between carboxylated SWCNTs and the studied free radicals was found to be dependent on the site of functionalization as well as on the site of reaction. The major conclusion from this work is that carboxylated SWCNTs are at least as good, or even better, free radical scavengers than their nonfunctionalized partners. It is proposed that the presence of -COOH groups would increase the free radical scavenging activity of SWCNTs, provided that the coverage occurs in such an amount that there is enough free space on the walls for the reactions to take place. The reliability of the calculations reported in the present work has been tested by comparison with different levels of theory. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Lopez R.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Gonzalez F.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Cruz M.P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Villafuerte-Castrejon M.E.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2011

Potassium-sodium niobate was synthesized at 800 °C for 1 h using dried precursors in a powder form obtained by the spray drying method. Different samples were sintered from 1060 to 1120 °C for 2 h reaching a relative density as high as 96% of the theoretical value. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were studied for these samples and some of the most prominent results are: kp, d31, 2Pr, and 2EC of 0.36, 39 pC/N, 29 μC/cm2 and 16.5 kV/cm, respectively, for the sample sintered at 1080 °C. The methodology presented in this study can be used to synthesize submicrometer powders. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hamui L.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Monroy B.M.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Roca i Cabarrocas P.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Santana G.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

This work describes a study performed on hydrogenated polymorphous silicon PIN and NIP structures, deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We study hydrogen stability and its evolution during exodiffusion experiments in these structures, trying to determine the effect of light-soaking pre-treatments on the hydrogen effusion mechanisms. We examined the structural and optical properties of PIN and NIP structures after exodiffusion experiments. These were analyzed in terms of the different hydrogen diffusion processes comparing light-soaked samples and samples without light-soaking. Also, an analysis of both structures was done in order to determine which one is less affected by light-soaking. From the simultaneous measurement of temperature and hydrogen desorption, we propose a model for long range diffusion of hydrogen. We show that long range motion of hydrogen during light-soaking and annealing causes a hydrogen rearrangement on the film and microstructure changes which result in a shift on the exodiffusion peaks. Both structures were compared and are discussed in terms of the hydrogen bonding configurations and environment. We determined that for the PIN structure a hydrogen diffusion barrier is generated by light-induced defects, which is expected to cause less degradation of its optoelectronic properties under illumination, and a more stable device during operation along with an enhanced functional performance of this type of structure. © 2015.


Vargas R.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Martinez A.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we present an analysis of the interaction of metal ions (Cu, Ag and Au) with three different pterins (pterin, isoxanthopterin and sepiapterin) to provide insights concerning the formation of conventional and non-conventional H bonds. Density functional theory calculations were performed in order to reveal the optimized structures of pterin molecules, dimers and tetramers compounds, both with and without metal anions (M). The interaction with small metal clusters (M 3) is also considered. The formation of different systems is characterized in terms of the structural parameters and hydrogen binding energies (HBE). The HBE values for pterin-M systems presented in this study lie between 22 and 60 kcal mol -1 and can therefore be classified as strong conventional and strong non-conventional hydrogen bonds. The HBE with small metal clusters (pterin-M 3) are smaller than the HBE with metal atoms. Vertical electron detachment energies (VEDEs) are also reported in order to analyze the influence of the hydrogen bond on electronic properties. A direct correlation between VEDEs and HBE was found for pterin-M and pterin-M 3 complexes; i.e. as the VEDEs increase, the HBE also augment. The only exception is with Ag 3. The main conclusion derived from this study is that the strong non-conventional hydrogen bonds formed between pterins, dimers and tetramers do not affect the formation of conventional hydrogen bonds between pterins but they do influence the VEDEs. © the Owner Societies 2011.


Perez-Reyes I.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales | Davalos-Orozco L.A.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

Results for the linear thermoconvective stability of a layer of viscoelastic Maxwell fluid are presented. The stability problem is characterized by taking into account the lower and upper wall thermal conductivities as well as their thicknesses. This allows more realistic theoretical boundary conditions. A system consisting of a horizontal infinite Maxwell fluid layer confined between two parallel walls perpendicular to gravity is considered. The critical Rayleigh number Rc, the frequency of oscillation ωc and the wavenumber kc were determined for fixed values of the relaxation time constant F and the Prandtl number Pr. The results are given for a range of wall thermal conductivities and thicknesses. Analytical and numerical solutions were calculated. Some unexpected results were found in comparison to those of the Newtonian fluid where the criticality curves become more unstable when the conductivities of the walls change from very good conductors to very bad conductors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Davalos-Orozco L.A.,Institute Investigaciones en Materiales
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics | Year: 2012

The nonlinear thermal instability of a thin liquid film falling down a heated wall is investigated. In particular, the heat conductivity and the thickness of the wall are taken into account. It is found that these two effects are represented by only one parameter which is the ratio of the nondimensional thickness of the wall and the nondimensional heat conductivity of the wall, that is d/Qc. The longwave linear stability is described in a general form with respect to a wide range of values of this parameter in order to understand the behavior of the thin film. In the nonlinear case, the thin film instability is investigated in space and time for two examples of time dependent perturbations. The first one is at a perturbation frequency of 0.5 and the second one is at 2.5. The Reynolds numbers corresponding to the isothermal maximum growth rate are used and it is shown that they are located at important places of the k vs. R plane, where k is the wave number and R is the Reynolds number. It is found the important result that, for any fixed Marangoni number Ma, the increase of the parameter d/Qc stabilizes the flow and at the same time decreases the nonlinear amplitude of the perturbations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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