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Montano M.F.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Loya-Olguin J.L.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Plascencia A.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Zinn R.A.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

One hundred twelve yearling steers (364±3.4 kg) were used in a 123-d finishing trial to evaluate the interaction of laidlomycin propionate and variation in supplement inclusion rate on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Two levels of laidlomycin propionate (0 vs. 10 mg/kg) and two levels of variation in daily supplement (12 g urea, 18 g limestone, 2 g MgO 2 and 5 g trace mineralized salt) inclusion rate (0 vs 20% coefficient of variation) were evaluated ina2×2 factorial arrangement. Variation was produced by altering the inclusion rate of the supplement portion of the diet to achieve a 20% CV in supplement concentration of the complete mixed, as follows: on d 1 and 5 of each week the diet contained 125% of the specified amount of supplement; on d 2, 4 and 6 the diet contained 100% of the specified amount of supplement; on d 3 and 7 the diet contained 75% of the specified amount of supplement. There were no treatment interactions (P>0.20). Variation in supplement inclusion rate decreased ADG (8%, P<0.05), gain efficiency (G:F; 5%, P<0.01), dietary NE m (2.3%, P<0.01) and dietary NE g (3.3%, P<0.01). Supplemental laidlomycin tended to increase ADG (6%, P=0.19), but did not affect (P>0.20) gain efficiency or dietary NE. There were no treatment effects (P>0.20) on carcass characteristics. It is concluded that variation in supplement inclusion may depress growth performance of feedlot cattle, attributable to reduction in both energetic efficiency and DMI. © GSP, India.


Salinas-Chavira J.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | Arzola C.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | Gonzalez-Vizcarra V.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | Gonzalez-Vizcarra V.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | And 10 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (239±15 kg) were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h temperature humidity index averaged 80, EHY increased dry matter intake (DMI) (linear effect, p<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) (linear effect, p = 0.01). There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on carcass characteristics. In experiment 2, four Holstein steers (292±5 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4x4 Latin Square design experiment to evaluate treatments effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion in steers. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid, molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, or estimated methane production. Supplemental EHY decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate (p = 0.08), increased molar proportion of propionate (p = 0.09), and decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.07) and estimated ruminal methane production (p = 0.09). It is concluded that supplemental EHY may enhance DMI and ADG of feedlot steers during periods of high ambient temperature. Supplemental EHY may also enhance ruminal fiber digestion and decrease ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratios in feedlot steers fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets. Copyright © 2015 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


Plascencia A.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Alvarez E.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Corona L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gonzalez V.M.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Two corn hybrid varieties [normal yellow dent corn (NC) and high oil corn (HOC)] and two levels of supplemental fat (0 vs. 30. g yellow grease/kg diet, YG) were evaluated in two 4. ×. 4 Latin square experiments involving eight Holstein steers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. In Experiment 1, corn varieties were processed by dry rolling. In Experiment 2, they were processed by steam flaking. Non fat-supplemented NC and HOC diets contained 2.7 and 4.8. g of fatty acids (FA)/kg diet, respectively. Fat supplementation increased FA content to 4.9 and 7.1. g FA/kg diet for NC and HOC diets, respectively. With dry rolled corn varieties (Experiment 1), there were no treatment interactions on ruminal, postruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N. There were interactions (P≤0.05) between corn variety and supplemental YG on ruminal aNDFom and postruminal FA digestion. With dry rolled NC, supplemental YG decreased ruminal aNDFom digestion, and postruminal FA digestion. Whereas, with dry rolled HOC, supplemental YG increased ruminal aNDFom digestion, but did not affect postruminal FA digestion. YG decreased (P<0.01) ruminal digestion of OM (11%) and starch (10%). Supplemental YG did not affect (P>0.05) total tract digestion of OM, starch, aNDFom and N, but increased (2.5%, P≤0.05) dietary DE. Ruminal (P<0.01) and total tract digestion (P≤0.05) of OM (1.4 and 3.0%) and starch (11.2 and 2.3%) were greater for NC vs. HOC diets. Likewise, ruminal aNDFom digestion tended to be greater (11.2%, P=0.07) for NC vs. HOC diets. Corn variety did not affect (P≥0.55) postruminal digestion of OM, starch and N. Corn variety did not affect (P≥0.53) total tract digestion of N, aNDFom or DE diet. With steam-flaked corn varieties (Experiment 2), there were no treatment interactions (P>0.05) on ruminal, postruminal and total tract digestion of OM, aNDFom, starch and N. There were interactions (P≤0.05) between corn variety and supplemental YG on intestinal FA digestion. With the NC diets, YG decreased FA digestion; whereas with the HOC diets, supplemental YG increased FA digestion. Supplemental YG did not affect (P>0.05) ruminal digestion, postruminal, or total tract digestion of OM, aNDFom, starch, N. Diet DE value was greater (3.1%, P≤0.05) for YG supplemented diets. There were no corn variety effects (P>0.05) on ruminal, postruminal and total tract digestion of OM, aNDFom, starch and N. Postruminal FA digestion was greater (6.7%, P<0.01) for NC than for HOC. It is concluded that the feeding value of high oil corn may not be different from that of normal corn. Independent of processing, the greater initial energy density of high oil corn is offset by slightly lower OM and/or fatty acid digestion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Montano M.F.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Gonzalez V.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Manriquez O.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | May D.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Two trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of fines on the feeding value of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in finishing diets for feedlot cattle. Three levels (0, 333 and 667. g/kg) of re-rolled SFC replaced standard SFC (0.31. kg/L) in a corn-based finishing diet (DM basis). Diets were offered as total mixed rations. Re-rolled SFC consisted of standard air-dry SFC that was passed through the rollers a second time to simulate loss of flake integrity which can occur during feed-handling. In experiment one, the influence of fines in SFC on growth performance was evaluated in eighteen crossbred steers (294. ±. 5. kg) in a replicated 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Daily weight gain was similar (P>0.10) among treatments, averaging 1.31. kg/d. Dry matter intake tended to be greater (quadratic effect, P=0.06) for diets containing re-rolled steam-flaked corn. Gain efficiency and dietary NE were not influenced by dietary treatments (P>0.10). In experiment two, six Holstein steers (308. ±. 17. kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a replicated 3. ×. 3 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Reductions in particle size of SFC due to rerolling did not influence ruminal or total tract digestion of OM, NDF, N, or starch (P>0.10). Likewise, there were no treatment effects (P>0.10) on ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal pH, or ruminal VFA molar proportions. It is concluded that the impact of flake disintegration during conveyance and handling on feedlot cattle growth performance and characteristics of digestion will be marginal, if appreciable. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Alvarez E.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Barajas R.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Calderon F.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Montano M.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Zinn R.A.,University of California at Davis
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Four Holstein steers (407±4kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment. Treatments consisted of a 755g/kg steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet in which fungal infested steam-flaked corn replaced 0, 150, 300, and 450g/kg of the control flaked corn. The yeast and mold counts averaged 2.9×10 2, and 1.2×10 4CFU/g, respectively, for control flaked corn, and 7.0×10 5, and 6.2×10 6CFU/g, respectively, for fungal infested flaked corn. There were no treatment effects (P>0.10) on ruminal pH or volatile fatty acids molar proportions. Ruminal digestion of organic matter (OM; linear component, P<0.10), and feed N (linear component, P<0.05) decreased with increasing levels of fungal infested flaked corn in the diet. There were no treatment effects (P>0.10) on net microbial N synthesis. Amino acid intake increased linearly (P<0.01) as fungal infested flaked corn was augmented, and amino acid flow to duodenum was increased (P<0.01) with the highest fungal infested flaked corn level. Total tract digestion of OM, N and energy decreased (linear component, P<0.05) with increasing SFM. Ruminal and total tract digestion of ADF and starch were not affected (P>0.10) by treatments. It is concluded that mold infestation diminishes the feeding value of steam-flaked corn. The consequence was not related to effects of fungal growth on characteristics of digestion, but rather, to loss of readily digestible nutrients (starch) through the spoilage process, and to a lesser extent, decreased N digestibility. On the other hand, the metabolizable protein value was greater for fungal infested flaked corn. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias and University of California at Davis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences | Year: 2016

Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of kaolinite clay supplementation (0%, 1%, or 2% diet dry matter [DM] basis) on characteristics of digestion (Trial 1) and growth performance (Trial 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers fed a finishing diet. In Trial 1, 6 Holstein steers (53915 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Kaolinite clay supplementation decreased total tract DM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01) without effects (p0.10) on site and extent of digestion of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch and N, or ruminal microbial efficiency. There were no treatment effects on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids molar proportions or estimated methane production. In Trial 2, 108 Holstein steers (132.45.6 kg) were used in a 308-d study to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on average daily gain (ADG) and gain efficiency (ADG/dry matter intake). Kaolinite supplementation tended (linear effect, p = 0.08) to increase dietary net energy (NE) during the initial 112-d period. However, the overall (308-d) effect of supplementation dietary NE was not appreciable (p>0.20). However, due to the inertness of kaolinite, itself, the ratio of observed-to-expected dietary NE increased with kaolinite supplementation. This effect was more pronounced (linear effect, p 0.03) during the initial 224 d of the study. Overall (308 d), kaolinite supplementation tended to increase (linear effect, p = 0.07) dietary NE by 3% over expected. Kaolinite supplementation did not affect carcass weight, yield grade, longissimus area, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, and quality grade, but decreased (linear effect, p = 0.01) dressing percentage. It is concluded that kaolinite supplementation up to 2% of diet DM may enhance energetic efficiency of calf-fed Holstein steers in a manner independent of changes in characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias and University of California at Davis
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and technology | Year: 2015

Two trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of supplemental urea withdrawal on characteristics of digestion (Trial 1) and growth performance (Trial 2) of feedlot cattle during the last 40 days on feed. Treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet supplemented with urea to provide urea fermentation potential (UFP) of 0, 0.6, and 1.2%. In Trial 1, six Holstein steers (160 10 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a replicated 3 3 Latin square experiment. Decreasing supplemental urea decreased (linear effect, P 0.05) ruminal OM digestion. This effect was mediated by decreases (linear effect, P 0.05) in ruminal digestibility of NDF and N. Passage of non-ammonia and microbial N (MN) to the small intestine decreased (linear effect, P = 0.04) with decreasing dietary urea level. Total tract digestion of OM (linear effect, P = 0.06), NDF (linear effect, P = 0.07), N (linear effect, P = 0.04) and dietary DE (linear effect, P = 0.05) decreased with decreasing urea level. Treatment effects on total tract starch digestion, although numerically small, likewise tended (linear effect, P = 0.11) to decrease with decreasing urea level. Decreased fiber digestion accounted for 51% of the variation in OM digestion. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments averaging 5.82. Decreasing urea level decreased (linear effect, P 0.05) ruminal N-NH and blood urea nitrogen. In Trial 2, 90 crossbred steers (468 kg 8), were used in a 40 d feeding trial (5 steers/pen, 6 pens/ treatment) to evaluate treatment effects on final-phase growth performance. Decreasing urea level did not affect DMI, but decreased (linear effect, P 0.03) ADG, gain efficiency, and dietary NE. It is concluded that in addition to effects on metabolizable amino acid flow to the small intestine, depriving cattle of otherwise ruminally degradable N (RDP) during the late finishing phase may negatively impact site and extent of digestion of OM, depressing ADG, gain efficiency, and dietary NE.


Castillo-Castillo Y.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Ruiz-Barrera O.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Salinas-Chavira J.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Salinas-Chavira J.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | And 8 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial kinetics, fermentative and chemical characteristics during solid state fermentation (SSF) of apple bagasse (AB), which was determined over the course of 4 incubation times: 0, 24, 48, 72 h, in a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. pH values, lactic acid concentration, numbers of total aerobic bacteria, yeast and lactobacilli, dry matter digestibility and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were determined. True and crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber were also measured. Results revealed that pH decreased over the 4 sampling times. The lactic acid concentration increased over time. There was a reduction in numbers of total aerobic bacteria. Numbers of lactobacilli also reduced. Yeast populations (CFU/ml) were stable at 24h, but decreased thereafter. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) increased during incubation. In vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD) similarly increased, with a maximum value observed at 72 h. True protein (TP) increased during fermentation, achieving a high value at 24 h; however, crude protein (CP) showed no change during incubation. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content did not change during fermentation however acid detergent fiber (ADF) reduced. It is concluded that the increased content of lactic acid and the accompanying decrease in pH during SSF of AB negatively affected the yeast and total bacteria populations whereas true protein content increased likely because of formation of unicellular protein during the process.


La O O.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Gonzalez H.,Autonomous University of Ciudad Juárez | Orozco A.,Autonomous University of Ciudad Juárez | Castillo Y.,Autonomous University of Ciudad Juárez | And 8 more authors.
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

An experimental sequence was performed with nine ecotypes of Tithonia diversifolia (3, 5, 6, 10, 13, 17, 23, 24, and 25) to determine chemical composition, in situ rumen effective degradability (ED) of dry matter (DM), and in vitro apparent and true digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF. Times of 6, 12, 36, 48, and 72 h were used for the degradability study. The kinetic performance was characterized by rise in the dynamics of DM disappearance, whereas the rumen effective DM degradability had values between 26.29 and 86.55 % for different rumen turnover constants. The fit of the data of in situ rumen degradability to the model proposed showed R2 superior to 0.89. In the ecotypes under study, the estimates of DM and OM apparent digestibility (IVDMAD and IVOMAD) kept values inferior to the true digestibility of both constituents (IVDMTD and IVOMTD). The values of IVDMAD were within the range from 72.25 to 79.77 %, and those of IVOMAD were from 57.71 to 66.20 %, as compared with the values of IVDMTD and IVOMTD, which ranged from 81.08 to 85.66 %, and from 65.27 to 70.22 % respectively. There were differences between each of the plant materials per indicator (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The chemical composition analysis results of the in situ DM rumen degradability and the in vitro apparent and true digestibility of the DM, OM, NDF, and ADF of the ecotypes of T. diversifolia suggest their nutritional value. However, physiological studies are required to link the cut frequency, the level of inclusion of these ecotypes, the degree of utilization of the nutrients by the animal and the effect of some secondary metabolites on the physiological and productive responses of the plant.

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