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La O O.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Gonzalez H.,Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez | Orozco A.,Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez | Castillo Y.,Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez | And 8 more authors.
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

An experimental sequence was performed with nine ecotypes of Tithonia diversifolia (3, 5, 6, 10, 13, 17, 23, 24, and 25) to determine chemical composition, in situ rumen effective degradability (ED) of dry matter (DM), and in vitro apparent and true digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF. Times of 6, 12, 36, 48, and 72 h were used for the degradability study. The kinetic performance was characterized by rise in the dynamics of DM disappearance, whereas the rumen effective DM degradability had values between 26.29 and 86.55 % for different rumen turnover constants. The fit of the data of in situ rumen degradability to the model proposed showed R2 superior to 0.89. In the ecotypes under study, the estimates of DM and OM apparent digestibility (IVDMAD and IVOMAD) kept values inferior to the true digestibility of both constituents (IVDMTD and IVOMTD). The values of IVDMAD were within the range from 72.25 to 79.77 %, and those of IVOMAD were from 57.71 to 66.20 %, as compared with the values of IVDMTD and IVOMTD, which ranged from 81.08 to 85.66 %, and from 65.27 to 70.22 % respectively. There were differences between each of the plant materials per indicator (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The chemical composition analysis results of the in situ DM rumen degradability and the in vitro apparent and true digestibility of the DM, OM, NDF, and ADF of the ecotypes of T. diversifolia suggest their nutritional value. However, physiological studies are required to link the cut frequency, the level of inclusion of these ecotypes, the degree of utilization of the nutrients by the animal and the effect of some secondary metabolites on the physiological and productive responses of the plant. Source


Montano M.F.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Loya-Olguin J.L.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Plascencia A.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Zinn R.A.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

One hundred twelve yearling steers (364±3.4 kg) were used in a 123-d finishing trial to evaluate the interaction of laidlomycin propionate and variation in supplement inclusion rate on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Two levels of laidlomycin propionate (0 vs. 10 mg/kg) and two levels of variation in daily supplement (12 g urea, 18 g limestone, 2 g MgO 2 and 5 g trace mineralized salt) inclusion rate (0 vs 20% coefficient of variation) were evaluated ina2×2 factorial arrangement. Variation was produced by altering the inclusion rate of the supplement portion of the diet to achieve a 20% CV in supplement concentration of the complete mixed, as follows: on d 1 and 5 of each week the diet contained 125% of the specified amount of supplement; on d 2, 4 and 6 the diet contained 100% of the specified amount of supplement; on d 3 and 7 the diet contained 75% of the specified amount of supplement. There were no treatment interactions (P>0.20). Variation in supplement inclusion rate decreased ADG (8%, P<0.05), gain efficiency (G:F; 5%, P<0.01), dietary NE m (2.3%, P<0.01) and dietary NE g (3.3%, P<0.01). Supplemental laidlomycin tended to increase ADG (6%, P=0.19), but did not affect (P>0.20) gain efficiency or dietary NE. There were no treatment effects (P>0.20) on carcass characteristics. It is concluded that variation in supplement inclusion may depress growth performance of feedlot cattle, attributable to reduction in both energetic efficiency and DMI. © GSP, India. Source


Plascencia A.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Alvarez E.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Corona L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gonzalez V.M.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Two corn hybrid varieties [normal yellow dent corn (NC) and high oil corn (HOC)] and two levels of supplemental fat (0 vs. 30. g yellow grease/kg diet, YG) were evaluated in two 4. ×. 4 Latin square experiments involving eight Holstein steers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. In Experiment 1, corn varieties were processed by dry rolling. In Experiment 2, they were processed by steam flaking. Non fat-supplemented NC and HOC diets contained 2.7 and 4.8. g of fatty acids (FA)/kg diet, respectively. Fat supplementation increased FA content to 4.9 and 7.1. g FA/kg diet for NC and HOC diets, respectively. With dry rolled corn varieties (Experiment 1), there were no treatment interactions on ruminal, postruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N. There were interactions (P≤0.05) between corn variety and supplemental YG on ruminal aNDFom and postruminal FA digestion. With dry rolled NC, supplemental YG decreased ruminal aNDFom digestion, and postruminal FA digestion. Whereas, with dry rolled HOC, supplemental YG increased ruminal aNDFom digestion, but did not affect postruminal FA digestion. YG decreased (P<0.01) ruminal digestion of OM (11%) and starch (10%). Supplemental YG did not affect (P>0.05) total tract digestion of OM, starch, aNDFom and N, but increased (2.5%, P≤0.05) dietary DE. Ruminal (P<0.01) and total tract digestion (P≤0.05) of OM (1.4 and 3.0%) and starch (11.2 and 2.3%) were greater for NC vs. HOC diets. Likewise, ruminal aNDFom digestion tended to be greater (11.2%, P=0.07) for NC vs. HOC diets. Corn variety did not affect (P≥0.55) postruminal digestion of OM, starch and N. Corn variety did not affect (P≥0.53) total tract digestion of N, aNDFom or DE diet. With steam-flaked corn varieties (Experiment 2), there were no treatment interactions (P>0.05) on ruminal, postruminal and total tract digestion of OM, aNDFom, starch and N. There were interactions (P≤0.05) between corn variety and supplemental YG on intestinal FA digestion. With the NC diets, YG decreased FA digestion; whereas with the HOC diets, supplemental YG increased FA digestion. Supplemental YG did not affect (P>0.05) ruminal digestion, postruminal, or total tract digestion of OM, aNDFom, starch, N. Diet DE value was greater (3.1%, P≤0.05) for YG supplemented diets. There were no corn variety effects (P>0.05) on ruminal, postruminal and total tract digestion of OM, aNDFom, starch and N. Postruminal FA digestion was greater (6.7%, P<0.01) for NC than for HOC. It is concluded that the feeding value of high oil corn may not be different from that of normal corn. Independent of processing, the greater initial energy density of high oil corn is offset by slightly lower OM and/or fatty acid digestion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Montano M.F.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Gonzalez V.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Manriquez O.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | May D.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Two trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of fines on the feeding value of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in finishing diets for feedlot cattle. Three levels (0, 333 and 667. g/kg) of re-rolled SFC replaced standard SFC (0.31. kg/L) in a corn-based finishing diet (DM basis). Diets were offered as total mixed rations. Re-rolled SFC consisted of standard air-dry SFC that was passed through the rollers a second time to simulate loss of flake integrity which can occur during feed-handling. In experiment one, the influence of fines in SFC on growth performance was evaluated in eighteen crossbred steers (294. ±. 5. kg) in a replicated 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Daily weight gain was similar (P>0.10) among treatments, averaging 1.31. kg/d. Dry matter intake tended to be greater (quadratic effect, P=0.06) for diets containing re-rolled steam-flaked corn. Gain efficiency and dietary NE were not influenced by dietary treatments (P>0.10). In experiment two, six Holstein steers (308. ±. 17. kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a replicated 3. ×. 3 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Reductions in particle size of SFC due to rerolling did not influence ruminal or total tract digestion of OM, NDF, N, or starch (P>0.10). Likewise, there were no treatment effects (P>0.10) on ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal pH, or ruminal VFA molar proportions. It is concluded that the impact of flake disintegration during conveyance and handling on feedlot cattle growth performance and characteristics of digestion will be marginal, if appreciable. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Alvarez E.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Barajas R.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Calderon F.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Montano M.,Institute Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias | Zinn R.A.,University of California at Davis
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Four Holstein steers (407±4kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment. Treatments consisted of a 755g/kg steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet in which fungal infested steam-flaked corn replaced 0, 150, 300, and 450g/kg of the control flaked corn. The yeast and mold counts averaged 2.9×10 2, and 1.2×10 4CFU/g, respectively, for control flaked corn, and 7.0×10 5, and 6.2×10 6CFU/g, respectively, for fungal infested flaked corn. There were no treatment effects (P>0.10) on ruminal pH or volatile fatty acids molar proportions. Ruminal digestion of organic matter (OM; linear component, P<0.10), and feed N (linear component, P<0.05) decreased with increasing levels of fungal infested flaked corn in the diet. There were no treatment effects (P>0.10) on net microbial N synthesis. Amino acid intake increased linearly (P<0.01) as fungal infested flaked corn was augmented, and amino acid flow to duodenum was increased (P<0.01) with the highest fungal infested flaked corn level. Total tract digestion of OM, N and energy decreased (linear component, P<0.05) with increasing SFM. Ruminal and total tract digestion of ADF and starch were not affected (P>0.10) by treatments. It is concluded that mold infestation diminishes the feeding value of steam-flaked corn. The consequence was not related to effects of fungal growth on characteristics of digestion, but rather, to loss of readily digestible nutrients (starch) through the spoilage process, and to a lesser extent, decreased N digestibility. On the other hand, the metabolizable protein value was greater for fungal infested flaked corn. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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