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Kocifaj M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Kocifaj M.,Comenius University | Lamphar H.A.S.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Lamphar H.A.S.,Institute Investigaciones Dr Jose Maria Luis Mora | Kundracik F.,Comenius University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015

The emission function from ground-based light sources predetermines the skyglow features to a large extent, while most mathematical models that are used to predict the night sky brightness require the information on this function. The radiant intensity distribution on a clear sky is experimentally determined as a function of zenith angle using the theoretical approach published only recently in MNRAS, 439, 3405-3413.We have made the experiments in two localities in Slovakia and Mexico by means of two digital single lens reflex professional cameras operating with different lenses that limit the system's field-of-view to either 180° or 167°. The purpose of using two cameras was to identify variances between two different apertures. Images are taken at different distances from an artificial light source (a city) with intention to determine the ratio of zenith radiance relative to horizontal irradiance. Subsequently, the information on the fraction of the light radiated directly into the upward hemisphere (F) is extracted. The results show that inexpensive devices can properly identify the upward emissions with adequate reliability as long as the clear sky radiance distribution is dominated by a largest ground-based light source. Highly unstable turbidity conditions can also make the parameter F difficult to find or even impossible to retrieve. The measurements at low elevation angles should be avoided due to a potentially parasitic effect of direct light emissions from luminaires surrounding the measuring site. © 2015 The Authors.

Rocha B.C.,Institute Investigaciones Dr Jose Maria Luis Mora | Ceccon E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Investigaciones Geograficas | Year: 2010

This paper briefly describes fair-trade phenomenon and its share in the worldwide trade. At the same time, examines the role of different actors that participate in fairtrade network, from the producers down to the consumers. Finally it evaluates the relationships among these actors and the challenges that they face in order to ameliorate the system and improve the producer condition of participation, a fundamental elements of this network.

Solano Lamphar H.A.,Institute Investigaciones Dr Jose Maria Luis Mora | Kocifaj M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Kocifaj M.,Comenius University
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2016

To date, diverse approximations have been developed to interpret the radiance of a night sky due to light emissions from ground-based light sources. The radiant intensity distribution as a function of zenith angle is one of the most unknown properties because of the collective effects of all artificial, private and public lights. The emission function (EF) is, however, a key property in modeling the skyglow under arbitrary conditions, and thus it is equally required by modelers, light pollution researchers, and also experimentalists who are using specialized devices to study the diffuse light of a night sky.In this paper, we present the second generation of a dedicated measuring system intended for routine monitoring of a night sky in any region. The experimental technology we have developed is used to interpret clear sky radiance data recorded at a set of discrete distances from a town (or city) with the aim to infer the fraction of upwardly emitted light (F), that is a parameter scaling the bulk EF. The retrieval of the direct upward emissions has been improved by introducing a weighting factor that is used to eliminate imperfections of experimental data and thus to make the computation of F more stable when processing the radiance data taken at two adjacent measuring points. The field experiments made in three Mexican cities are analyzed and the differences found are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

On September 1, 1910, more than two thousand people celebrated the one hundredth anniversary of Mexico's Proclamation of Independence with the inauguration of a psychiatric hospital. According to the event's official chronicler, the 25 buildings constructed by order of president Porfirio Díaz on the site of the former Castañeda Hacienda would place Mexico among the leading countries in the world in treating mental health pathologies. But, what had been Mexico's development in this field during the XIX century? Could we consider La Castañeda «the birthplace of public psychiatry» in Mexico? This work analyzes La Castañeda's contribution to the professionalization of psychiatry in Mexico, not only by looking at the place that research and teaching traditionally had in hospitals, but also by looking at other mechanisms that help to form a discipline, such as the capacity to bring light to scientific societies and to bring credibility to a new medical field such as psychiatry, so much in need of therapeutic successes in those years. In the XIX century around 400 articles, theses and books by Mexican, Hispanic and foreign authors were published that dealt with topics associated with psychiatry. The old hospitals of the colonial system such as San Hipólito and La Canoa established a form of treatment called «moral treatment», precursor to psychiatry, and were directed by a doctor substituting a director-administrator. Between 1865-1910, five projects for a modern mental hospital were made, one of which saw fruition in the form of La Castañeda. In 1887 the first course dealing with mental illness was taught and in 1906 the first specialization in psychiatry was brought about. Nonetheless, this movement was cut short by the Revolution of 1910 which assailed the country for almost a decade and provoked that La Castañeda be left without state support. The professionalization of Mexican psychiatry can be divided in three stages: 1910-1925, a period marked by the decomposition brought on by the war; 1925-1945, characterized by the major medical and administrative reform of the hospital, and 1945-1968, a stage which included the slow dismantling of La Castañeda. In the first stage, La Castañeda saw a certain level of deterioration in its assistance practices, as 25% of patients who entered between 1914-1916 were not diagnosed, and 45% of patients of those entering between 1917-1920 were not diagnosed either. This fact is explained by the institution's instability in those years. Between 1910-1923, La Castañeda had twelve directors. Academic courses in mental illness continued to be offered and a medical society was formed, but with few results. In 1925 Public Welfare asked doctor Enrique Aragón to inspect the Asylum and present a detailed report of any reforms needed. The three most serious problems he discovered were: the deficient way in which doctors handled patient's clinical records, shortages and poor training of personnel and the fact that there was almost no research being done. From 1925-1945, La Castañeda experienced great reforms thanks to three doctors who wanted to professionalize psychiatry in Mexico and place it at a competitive level with hospitals around the world, which they had seen in visits to Europe and the U.S. These doctors were Samuel Ramírez Moreno, Alfonso Millán Maldonado and Manuel Guevara Oropeza, who received support from the federal government. In 1929 a system of occupational therapy was established as a means of rehabilitation, and outpatient services were offered to those not needing hospitalization. In 1932 a Children's Ward was inaugurated and the following year the School for Abnormal Children, both directed by Mathilde Rodríguez Cabo, the first woman psychiatrist in Mexico. Alongside Ramírez Moreno, she began a project offering courses in psychiatric nursing and caregiving. In 1935 the Drug Addicts Unit was inaugurated, and in the years following shock therapies were introduced. A laboratory was established to perform traditional clinical analyses, as well as bacteriological and pathological analyses, and microphotography, both to improve diagnoses and to move research forward. All was influenced to a great extent by Spanish neurobiology which came about after the Spanish Civil War, when exiles such as Dionisio Nieto were received in Mexico. In order to strengthen the guild, at this stage there were important initiatives. In 1934, the Revista Mexicana de Psiquiatría, Neurología y Medicina Legal, the first journal in its field in Mexico, was published. In 1937 the Sociedad Mexicana de Neurología y Psiquiatría was founded, as well as its official organ, Archivos de Neurología y Psiquiatría de México. Around 1943, a project which would become Mexico's policy of mental health for the years 1945-1968 began to be conceived. This policy would lead to the demolition of La Castañeda, and replace it with farms or field homes for the mentally ill. This therapeutic model, with chronic patients in mind, was based on recreational and occupational therapies, and its intention was to place patients in contact with nature, under a regimen of liberty and dedicated to productive and dignified activities. Yet these farms were located far from urban centers, isolating patients even further from family. In fact, psychiatry itself was also isolated from the rest of the medical world. La Castañeda closed on June 29, 1968, and with it more than 68 000 lives, could they talk today, might well tell this story differently.

The present article analyzes a campaign by the Mexican government, among the public and the medical profession, to disseminate a health care reform that culminated with the opening of thirteen Farms for the mentally ill and the ideological abolition of the insane asylum in the sixties of the twentieth century. To do this, renowned psychiatrists who held public positions built a black legend over the most emblematic insane asylum of the country, pointing out as the main cause of failure the constraint to which patients were subjected. In doing so, they resembled the mental hospital to a prison and the insane to a social threat, because they reduced that institution's function and denied the many experiences that would ?t in it: a place of confinement and refuge, a therapeutic and knowledge production space. Even though Mexican psychiatry was professionalized in the space of the asylum, the State wanted to erase the memory of that past to suggest the establishment of a new era in mental health, where the patients would no longer be subject to any restrictions which could curtail their freedom. Overcoming the asylum model meant creating "open door" therapeutic alternatives, but the decision was to distort the past to exalt the future.

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