Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca

Bahía Blanca, Argentina

Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca

Bahía Blanca, Argentina
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Kamerbeek C.B.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Borroni V.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Pediconi M.F.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Sato S.B.,RIKEN | And 3 more authors.
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2013

The distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters at the cell membrane was studied in CHO-K1/A5 cells using fluorescence microscopy. Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a fluorescent probe that differentiates between liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases in model membranes, was used in combination with monoclonal anti-AChR antibody labeling of live cells, which induces AChR clustering. The so-called generalized polarization (GP) of di-4-ANEPPDHQ was measured in regions of the cell-surface membrane associated with or devoid of antibody-induced AChR clusters, respectively. AChR clusters were almost equally distributed between Lo and Ld domains, independently of receptor surface levels and agonist (carbamoylcholine and nicotine) or antagonist (α-bungarotoxin) binding. Cholesterol depletion diminished the cell membrane mean di-4-ANEPPDHQ GP and the number of AChR clusters associated with Ld membrane domains increased concomitantly. Depolymerization of the filamentous actin cytoskeleton by Latrunculin A had the opposite effect, with more AChR clusters associated with Lo domains. AChR internalized via small vesicles having lower GP and lower cholesterol content than the surface membrane. Upon cholesterol depletion, only 12% of the AChR-containing vesicles costained with the fluorescent cholesterol analog fPEG-cholesterol, i.e., AChR endocytosis was essentially dissociated from that of cholesterol. In conclusion, the distribution of AChR submicron-sized clusters at the cell membrane appears to be regulated by cholesterol content and cytoskeleton integrity. © 2013 Biophysical Society.


Borroni M.V.,Institute Tecnologia en Polimeros y Nanotecnologia ITPN | Valles A.S.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Barrantes F.J.,CONICET
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2016

Neurotransmitter receptors, the macromolecules specialized in decoding the chemical signals encrypted in the chemical signaling mechanism in the nervous system, occur either at the somatic cell surface of chemically excitable cells or at specialized subcellular structures, the synapses. Synapses have lipid compositions distinct from the rest of the cell membrane, suggesting that neurotransmitter receptors and their scaffolding and adaptor protein partners require specific lipid habitats for optimal operation. In this review we discuss some paradigmatic cases of neurotransmitter receptor-lipid interactions, highlighting the chemical nature of the intervening lipid species and providing examples of the receptor mechanisms affected by interaction with lipids. The focus is on the effects of cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and covalent fatty acid acylation on neurotransmitter receptors. We also briefly discuss the role of lipid phase states involving lateral heterogeneities of the host membrane known to modulate membrane transport, protein sorting and signaling. Modulation of neurotransmitter receptors by lipids occurs at multiple levels, affecting a wide span of activities including their trafficking, sorting, stability, residence lifetime at the cell surface, endocytosis, and recycling, among other important functional properties at the synapse. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Valles A.S.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Borroni M.V.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Borroni M.V.,CONICET | Barrantes F.J.,CONICET
CNS Drugs | Year: 2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the α7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-β-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the α7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target α7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, α7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades - together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties - to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


PubMed | CONICET and Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca
Type: | Journal: The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology | Year: 2016

Diacylglycerol (DAG), a second messenger involved in different cell signaling cascades, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and D (PKD), among other kinases. The present work analyzes the effects resulting from the alteration of DAG levels on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) distribution. We employ CHO-K1/A5 cells, expressing adult muscle-type AChR in a stable manner, and hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express various subtypes of neuronal AChR. CHO-K1/A5 cells treated with dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) for different periods showed augmented AChR cell surface levels at short incubation times (30min-4h) whereas at longer times (18h) the AChR was shifted to intracellular compartments. Similarly, in cultured hippocampal neurons surface AChR levels increased as a result of DOG incubation for 4h. Inhibition of endogenous DAG catabolism produced changes in AChR distribution similar to those induced by DOG treatment. Specific enzyme inhibitors and Western blot assays revealed that DAGs exert their effect on AChR distribution through the modulation of the activity of classical PKC (cPKC), novel PKC (nPKC) and PKD activity.


Uranga R.M.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca | Uranga R.M.,National University of Costa Rica | Uranga R.M.,CONICET | Katz S.,National University of Costa Rica | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

The PI3K/Akt pathway is a key component in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. The aim of this work was to investigate the participation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and its outcome on different molecular targets such as glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and Forkhead box-O (FoxO) transcription factors during mild oxidative stress triggered by iron overload. The exposure of mouse hippocampal neurons (HT22) to different concentrations of Fe2+ (25-200μM) for 24 h led us to define a mild oxidative injury status (50 μM Fe2+) in which cell morphology showed changes typical of neuronal damage with increased lipid peroxidation and cellular oxidant levels but no alteration of cellular viability. There was a simultaneous increase in both Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation. Levels of phospho-FoxO3a (inactive form) increased in the cytosolic fraction of cells treated with iron in a PI3K-dependent manner. Moreover, PI3K and Akt translocated to the nucleus in response to oxidative stress. Iron-overloaded cells harboring a constitutively active form of Akt showed decreased oxidants levels. Indeed, GSH synthesis under oxidative stress conditions was regulated by activated Akt. Our results show that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway during iron-induced neurotoxicity regulates multiple targets such as GSK3β, FoxO transcriptional activity, and glutathione metabolism, thus modulating the neuronal response to oxidative stress. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


PubMed | CONICET, Institute Tecnologia En Polimeros Y Nanotecnologia Itpn Av Las Heras 2214 C1127Aaq Buenos Aires Argentina and Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca
Type: Review | Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2016

Neurotransmitter receptors, the macromolecules specialized in decoding the chemical signals encrypted in the chemical signaling mechanism in the nervous system, occur either at the somatic cell surface of chemically excitable cells or at specialized subcellular structures, the synapses. Synapses have lipid compositions distinct from the rest of the cell membrane, suggesting that neurotransmitter receptors and their scaffolding and adaptor protein partners require specific lipid habitats for optimal operation. In this review we discuss some paradigmatic cases of neurotransmitter receptor-lipid interactions, highlighting the chemical nature of the intervening lipid species and providing examples of the receptor mechanisms affected by interaction with lipids. The focus is on the effects of cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and covalent fatty acid acylation on neurotransmitter receptors. We also briefly discuss the role of lipid phase states involving lateral heterogeneities of the host membrane known to modulate membrane transport, protein sorting and signaling. Modulation of neurotransmitter receptors by lipids occurs at multiple levels, affecting a wide span of activities including their trafficking, sorting, stability, residence lifetime at the cell surface, endocytosis, and recycling, among other important functional properties at the synapse.


Wenz J.J.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2012

The relationship between sterol structure and the resulting effects on membrane physical properties is still unclear, owing to the conflicting results found in the current literature. This study presents a multivariate analysis describing the physical properties of 83 steroid membranes. This first structure-activity analysis supports the generally accepted physical effects of sterols in lipid bilayers. The sterol chemical substituents and the sterol/phospholipid membrane physical properties were encoded by defining binary variables for the presence/absence of those chemical substituents in the polycyclic ring system and physical parameters obtained from phospholipid mixtures containing those sterols. Utilizing Principal Coordinates Analysis, the steroid population was grouped into five well-defined clusters according to their chemical structures. An examination of the membrane activity of each sterol structural cluster revealed that a hydroxyl group at C3 and an 8-10 carbon isoalkyl side-chain at C17 are mainly present in membrane active sterols having rigidifying, molecular ordering/condensing effects and/or a raft promoting ability. In contrast, sterol chemical structures containing a keto group at C3, a C4-C5-double bond, and polar groups or a short alkyl side-chain at C17 (3 to 7 atoms) are mostly found in sterols having opposite effects. Using combined multivariate approaches, it was concluded that the most important structural determinants influencing the physical properties of sterol-containing mixtures were the presence of an 8-10 carbon C17 isoalkyl side-chain, followed by a hydroxyl group at C3 and a C5-C6 double bond. Finally, a simple Logistic Regression model predicting the dependence of membrane activity on sterol chemical structure is proposed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wenz J.J.,Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2015

Abstract The activity of steroids on membranes was studied in relation to their ordering, rigidifying, condensing and/or raft promoting ability. The structures of 82 steroids were modeled by a semi-empirical procedure (AM1) and 245 molecular descriptors were next computed on the optimized energy conformations. Principal component analysis, mean contrasting and logistic regression were used to correlate the molecular properties with 212 cases of documented activities. It was possible to group steroids based on their properties and activities, indicating that steroids having similar molecular properties have similar activities on membranes. Steroids having high values of area, partition coefficient, volume, number of rotatable bonds, molar refractivity, polarizability or mass displayed ordering, rigidifying, condensing and/or raft promoting activity on membranes higher than those steroids having low values in such molecular properties. After a variable selection procedure circumventing correlation problems among descriptors, area and log P were found as the most relevant properties in governing and predicting the activity of steroids on membranes. A logistic regression model as a function of the area and log P of the steroids is proposed, which is able to predict correctly 92.5% of the cases. A rationale of the findings is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca
Type: | Journal: Journal of lipid research | Year: 2017

Rat spermatogenic cells contain sphingomyelins (SM) and ceramides (Cer) with very long-chain (VLC) PUFA, in nonhydroxylated (n-V) and 2-hydroxylated (h-V) forms. How these atypical species distribute among membrane fractions during differentiation was investigated here using a detergent-free procedure to isolate a small light, raft-like, low-density (L) fraction and a large heavy (H) fraction, mostly derived from the plasma membrane, of spermatocytes, round, and late spermatids. The L fraction contained cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and SM with the same saturated fatty acids in all three stages. In the H fraction, as PUFA increased in the glycerophospholipid and VLCPUFA in SM from spermatocytes to spermatids, the concentration of cholesterol also augmented. The H fraction had mostly n-V SM in spermatocytes but accumulated h-V SM and h-V Cer in spermatids. A fraction containing intracellular membranes had less SM and more Cer than H, but in both fractions SM and Cer species with h-V increased over species with n-V with differentiation. This accretion of h-V was consistent with the differentiation-dependent expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (Fa2h), as it increased significantly from spermatocytes to spermatids. The non-raft region of the plasma membrane is thus the main target of the dynamic lipid synthesis and remodeling that is involved in germ cell differentiation.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones Bioquimicas Of Bahia Blanca
Type: | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2016

We have previously demonstrated that oligomeric amyloid peptide (oA) together with iron overload generates synaptic injury and activation of several signaling cascades. In this work, we characterized hippocampal neuronal response to oA. HT22 neurons exposed to 500nM oA showed neither increased lipid peroxidation nor altered mitochondrial function. In addition, biophysical studies showed that oA did not perturb the lipid order of the membrane. Interestingly, although no neuronal damage could be demonstrated, oA was found to trigger bifurcated phosphoinositide-dependent signaling in the neuron, on one hand, the phosphorylation of insulin receptor, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of Akt, its translocation to the nucleus and the concomitant phosphorylation, inactivation, and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor Forkhead Box O3a (FoxO3a), and on the other, phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. Pharmacological manipulation of the signaling cascades was used in order to better characterize the role of oA-activated signals, and mitochondrial function was determined as a measure of neuronal viability. The inhibition of PI3K, PI-PLC, and general phosphoinositide metabolism impaired neuronal mitochondrial function. Furthermore, increased oA-induced cell death was observed in the presence of phosphoinositide metabolism inhibition. Our results allow us to conclude that oA triggers the activation of phosphoinositide-dependent signaling, which results in the subsequent activation of neuroprotective mechanisms that could be involved in the determination of neuronal fate.

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