Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam

Madrid, Spain

Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam

Madrid, Spain
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Nakatomi M.,Northumbria University | Nakatomi M.,Niigata University | Hovorakova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Gritli-Linde A.,Gothenburg University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Dental Research | Year: 2013

Tooth morphogenesis involves patterning through the activity of epithelial signaling centers that, among other molecules, secrete Sonic hedgehog (Shh). While it is known that Shh responding cells need intact primary cilia for signal transduction, the roles of individual cilia components for tooth morphogenesis are poorly understood. The clinical features of individuals with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome include various dental anomalies, and we show here that absence of the cilial protein Evc in mice causes various hypo- and hyperplasia defects during molar development. During first molar development, the response to Shh signaling is progressively lost in Evc-deficient embryos and, unexpectedly, the response consistently disappears in a buccal to lingual direction. The important role of Evc for establishing the buccal-lingual axis of the developing first molar is also supported by a displaced activity of the Wnt pathway in Evc mutants. The observed growth abnormalities eventually manifest in first molar microdontia, disruption of molar segmentation and symmetry, root fusions, and delayed differentiation. Analysis of our data indicates that both spatially and temporally disrupted activities of the Shh pathway are the primary cause for the variable dental anomalies seen in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome or Weyers acrodental dysostosis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2013.


Caparros-Martin J.A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam | Caparros-Martin J.A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Valencia M.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam | Reytor E.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam | And 11 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2013

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in patterning and morphogenesis of most organs in the developing mammalian embryo. Despite many advances in understanding core components of the pathway, little is known about how the activity of the Hh pathway is adjusted in organ- and tissue-specific developmental processes. Mutations in EVC or EVC2 disrupt Hh signaling in tooth and bone development. Using mouse models, we show here that Evc and Evc2 are mutually required for localizing to primary cilia and also for maintaining their normal protein levels. Consistent with Evc and Evc2 functioning as a complex, the skeletal phenotypes in either single or double homozygous mutant mice are virtually indistinguishable. Smo translocation to the cilium was normal in Evc2-deficient chondrocytes following Hh activation with the Smo-agonist SAG. However, Gli3 recruitment to cilia tips was reduced and Sufu/Gli3 dissociation was impaired. Interestingly, we found Smo to co-precipitate with Evc/Evc2, indicating that in some cells Hh signaling requires direct interaction of Smo with the Evc/Evc2 complex. Expression of a dominantly acting Evc2 mutation previously identified in Weyer's acrodental dysostosis (Evc2δ43) caused mislocalization of Evc/Evc2δ43 within the cilium and also reproduced the Gli3-related molecular defects observed in Evc2-/- chondrocytes. Moreover, Evc silencing in Sufu-/- cells attenuated the output of the Hh pathway, suggesting that Evc/Evc2 also promote Hh signaling in the absence of Sufu. Together our data reveal that the Hh pathway involves Evc/Evc2-dependent modulations that are necessary for normal endochondral bone formation. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Carrillo J.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam | Carrillo J.,CIBER ISCIII | Gonzalez A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam | Gonzalez A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with high clinical heterogeneity. Various mutations have been reported in DC patients, affecting genes that code for components of H/ACA ribonucleoproteins, proteins of the telomerase complex and components of the shelterin complex. Objectives: We aim to clarify the role of ribosome biogenesis failure in senescence induction in X-DC since some studies in animal models have reported a decrease in ribosome biogenesis as a major role in the disease. Methods: Dyskerin was depleted in normal human fibroblasts by expressing two DKC1 shRNAs. Common changes in gene expression profile between these dyskerin-depleted cells and X-DC fibroblasts were analyzed. Results: Dyskerin depletion induced early activation of the p53 pathway probably secondary to ribosome biogenesis failure. However, the p53 pathway in the fibroblasts from X-DC patients was activated only after an equivalent number of passes to AD-DC fibroblasts, in which telomere attrition in each division rendered shorter telomeres than control fibroblasts. Indeed, no induction of DNA damage was observed in dyskerin-depleted fibroblasts in contrast to X-DC or AD-DC fibroblasts suggesting that DNA damage induced by telomere attrition is responsible for p53 activation in X-DC and AD-DC fibroblasts. Moreover, p53 depletion in senescent DC fibroblasts rescued their proliferative capacity and reverted the morphological changes produced after prolonged culture. Conclusions: Our data indicate that ribosome biogenesis do not seem to play an important role in dyskeratosis congenita, conversely increasing DNA damage and activation of p53 pathway triggered by telomere shortening is the main activator of cell senescence. © Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO) 2013.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico | Year: 2014

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with high clinical heterogeneity. Various mutations have been reported in DC patients, affecting genes that code for components of H/ACA ribonucleoproteins, proteins of the telomerase complex and components of the shelterin complex.We aim to clarify the role of ribosome biogenesis failure in senescence induction in X-DC since some studies in animal models have reported a decrease in ribosome biogenesis as a major role in the disease.Dyskerin was depleted in normal human fibroblasts by expressing two DKC1 shRNAs. Common changes in gene expression profile between these dyskerin-depleted cells and X-DC fibroblasts were analyzed.Dyskerin depletion induced early activation of the p53 pathway probably secondary to ribosome biogenesis failure. However, the p53 pathway in the fibroblasts from X-DC patients was activated only after an equivalent number of passes to AD-DC fibroblasts, in which telomere attrition in each division rendered shorter telomeres than control fibroblasts. Indeed, no induction of DNA damage was observed in dyskerin-depleted fibroblasts in contrast to X-DC or AD-DC fibroblasts suggesting that DNA damage induced by telomere attrition is responsible for p53 activation in X-DC and AD-DC fibroblasts. Moreover, p53 depletion in senescent DC fibroblasts rescued their proliferative capacity and reverted the morphological changes produced after prolonged culture.Our data indicate that ribosome biogenesis do not seem to play an important role in dyskeratosis congenita, conversely increasing DNA damage and activation of p53 pathway triggered by telomere shortening is the main activator of cell senescence.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Of Madrid Csic Uam
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology | Year: 2010

Aneuploidy is a common feature of tumours that arise by errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible signaling pathways involved in sensitization to chemotherapy in cells with chromosomal instability. We designed a screen using the fission yeast Squizossaccharomyces pombe, to isolate strains showing a phenotype of chromosome mis-segregation and higher sensitivity to the antitumoral drug Bleomycin. We examined differences in gene expression using a comparative analysis of genome-wide expression of the wild type strain and one of the mutants. The results revealed a set of genes involved in cell cycle control, including Mad3/BubR1 and Chk1. We then studied the levels of these two proteins in colorectal cancer human cell lines with different genomic content. Among these, SW620 cells showed higher BubR1 and Chk1 mRNA levels than control cells under normal conditions. Since Chk1 is required for both S and G2/M checkpoints, and the microtubule-destabilizing agent, nocodazole induces mitotic arrest, we attempted to investigate the potential anticancer effects of nocodazole in combination with cisplatin. These studies showed that SW620 cells undergo synergistic cell death after spindle checkpoint activation followed by cisplatin treatment, suggesting a role of Chk1 in this checkpoint, very likely dependent on BubR1 protein. Importantly, Chk1-depleted SW620 cells lost this synergistic effect. In summary, we propose that Chk1 could be a biomarker predictive of the efficacy of chemotherapy across different types of tumors with aneuploidy. These findings may be potentially very useful for the stratification of patients for treatment.

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