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Garcia-Palmero I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lopez-Larrubia P.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Cerdan S.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Villalobo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
NMR in Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Development of neovasculature is a necessary requirement for tumour growth and it provides additional opportunities for therapeutic intervention. However, current antiangiogenic therapies have limited efficacy, mostly because of the development of resistance. Hence, characterization of new antiangiogenic molecular targets is of considerable clinical interest. We report that a calmodulin-binding domain (CaM-BD) deletion mutant of the growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7) (denoted Grb7Δ) impairs tumour growth and associated angiogenesis in vivo. We implanted glioma C6 cells in rat brains transfected with an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) chimera of Grb7{increment}, its EYFP-Grb7 wild type counterpart, and EYFP alone. We systematically followed intracerebral growth of the tumours, their cellularity and the functional performance of tumour-associated microvasculature using magnetic resonance imaging, including anatomical T1W and T2W images and functional diffusion and perfusion parameters. Tumours grown from implanted C6 cells expressing EYFP-Grb7Δ developed slower, became smaller and presented lower apparent cellularity than those derived from cells expressing EYFP-Grb7 and EYFP. Vascular perfusion measurements within tumours derived from EYFP-Grb7{increment}-expressing cells showed significantly lower cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) values. These findings were independently validated by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Taken together, these findings confirm that the CaM-BD of Grb7 plays an important role in tumour growth and associated angiogenesis in vivo, thus identifying this region of the protein as a novel target for antiangiogenic treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Becuwe M.,University Paris Diderot | Vieira N.,University of Minho | Lara D.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Gomes-Rezende J.,University of Minho | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Endocytosis regulates the plasma membrane protein landscape in response to environmental cues. In yeast, the endocytosis of transporters depends on their ubiquitylation by the Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, but how extracellular signals trigger this ubiquitylation is unknown. Various carbon source transporters are known to be ubiquitylated and endocytosed when glucose-starved cells are exposed to glucose. We show that this required the conserved arrestin-related protein Rod1/Art4, which was activated in response to glucose addition. Indeed, Rod1 was a direct target of the glucose signaling pathway composed of the AMPK homologue Snf1 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7/Reg1. Glucose promoted Rod1 dephosphorylation and its subsequent release from a phospho-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Consequently, this allowed Rod1 ubiquitylation by Rsp5, which was a prerequisite for transporter endocytosis. This paper therefore demonstrates that the arrestinrelated protein Rod1 relays glucose signaling to transporter endocytosis and provides the first molecular insights into the nutrient-induced activation of an arrestin-related protein through a switch in post-translational modifications. © 2012 Becuwe et al.


Redondo M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Zarruk J.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Ceballos P.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Perez D.I.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

A simple and efficient synthetic method for the preparation of quinazoline type phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors, based on microwave irradiation, has been developed. The use of this methodology improved yields and reaction times, providing a scalable procedure. These compounds are pharmacologically interesting because of their in vivo efficacy both in spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease models, as shown in previous studies from our group. Herein we describe for the first time that administration of one of the PDE7 inhibitors here optimized, 3-phenyl-2,4-dithioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline (compound 5), ameliorated brain damage and improved behavioral outcome in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) stroke model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these PDE7 inhibitors are potent anti-inflammatory as well as neuroprotective agents in primary cultures of neural cells. These results led us to propose PDE7 inhibitors as a new class of therapeutic agents for neuroprotection. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario La Paz, CIBER ISCIII, Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM and Madrid Norte Sanchinarro University Hospital Madrid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology | Year: 2015

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 85% of all lung cancers, which are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib represent one therapeutic options presently recommended for tumors produced by activating mutations in the gene coding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The aim of this study is the identification of possible biomarkers for tumor sensitivity to erlotinib in the absence of the main EGFR mutations. The erlotinib sensitivity of cells isolated from 41 untreated NSCLC patients was determined and compared with the presence of the more frequent EGFR mutations. Several patients had tumor cells highly sensitive to erlitinib in the absence of the EGFR mutations analyzed. The gene expression profile of 3 erlotinib-sensitive tumors was compared with that of 4 resistant tumors by DNA microarray hybridization. Sixteen genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant tumors than in the sensitive tumors. The possible correlation between erlotinib sensitivity and the expression of these genes was further analyzed using the data for the NSCLC, breast cancer and colon cancer cell lines of the NCI60 collection. The expression of these genes was correlated with the overall survival of 5 patients treated with erlotinib, according to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Overlapping groups of 7, 5 and 3 genes, including UGT1A6, TRIB3, MET, MMP7, COL17A1, LCN2 and PTPRZ1, whose expression correlated with erlotinib activity was identified. In particular, low MET expression levels showed the strongest correlation.


PubMed | CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano", Advanced Medical Projects and Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Dyskeratosis congenita is an inherited disease caused by mutations in genes coding for telomeric components. It was previously reported that expression of a dyskerin-derived peptide, GSE24.2, increases telomerase activity, regulates gene expression and decreases DNA damage and oxidative stress in dyskeratosis congenita patient cells. The biological activity of short peptides derived from GSE24.2 was tested and one of them, GSE4, that probed to be active, was further characterized in this article. Expression of this eleven amino acids long peptide increased telomerase activity and reduced DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell senescence in dyskerin-mutated cells. GSE4 expression also activated c-myc and TERT promoters and increase of c-myc, TERT and TERC expression. The level of biological activity of GSE4 was similar to that obtained by GSE24.2 expression. Incorporation of a dyskerin nuclear localization signal to GSE24.2 did not change its activity on promoter regulation and DNA damage protection. However, incorporation of a signal that increases the rate of nucleolar localization impaired GSE24.2 activity. Incorporation of the dyskerin nuclear localization signal to GSE4 did not alter its biological activity. Mutation of the Aspartic Acid residue that is conserved in the pseudouridine synthase domain present in GSE4 did not impair its activity, except for the repression of c-myc promoter activity and the decrease of c-myc, TERT and TERC gene expression in dyskerin-mutated cells. These results indicated that GSE4 could be of great therapeutic interest for treatment of dyskeratosis congenita patients.


Morales-Garcia J.A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Morales-Garcia J.A.,Research Center Biomedica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Palomo V.,Institute Quimica Medica | Redondo M.,Institute Quimica Medica | And 6 more authors.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Chronic neuroinflammation has been increasingly recognized as a primary mechanism underlying acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Enhanced expression of diverse pro-inflammatory agents in glial cells has been shown to contribute to the cell death that takes place in these disorders. Previous data from our group have shown that different inhibitors of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) specific phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) enzymes are potent anti-inflammatory agents in different models of brain injury. In this study, we investigated cross-talk between PDE7 and GSK-3, two relevant therapeutic targets for neurological disorders, using a chemical approach. To this end, we compared specific inhibitors of GSK-3 and PDE7 with dual inhibitors of both enzymes with regard to anti-inflammatory effects in primary cultures of glial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Our results show that the GSK-3 inhibitors act exclusively by inhibition of this enzyme. By contrast, PDE7 inhibitors exert their effects via inhibition of PDE7 to increase intracellular cAMP levels but also through indirect inhibition of GSK-3. Activation of protein kinase A by cAMP results in phosphorylation of Ser9 of GSK-3 and subsequent inhibition. Our results indicate that the indirect inhibition of GSK-3 by PDE7 inhibitors is an important mechanism that should be considered in the future development of pharmacological treatments. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Rodriguez-Centeno J.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Sastre L.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation. © 2016 Rodriguez-Centeno, Sastre.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Herrador A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Herranz S.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Lara D.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Vincent O.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

Mammalian arrestins have a major role in the intracellular trafficking of seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors. The fungal ambient pH signaling pathway involves an arrestin-related protein, PalF/Rim8, and the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. We found that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rim8 binds to both the putative 7TM pH sensor Rim21 and the ESCRT-I subunit Vps23. We show that an SXP motif in Rim8 mediates binding to the Vps23 ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain and that a monoubiquitinated residue near the SXP motif contributes to this interaction. We present evidence that Rim8 ubiquitination is dependent on the Rsp5 E3 ubiquitin ligase and triggered upon binding of Vps23 UEV to both the SXP motif and ubiquitin, thus suggesting a two-step binding mechanism. We further show that Rim8 coimmunoprecipitates with ESCRT-I subunits Vps23 and Vps28, supporting the idea that binding of Rim8 to Vps23 mediates the association of Rim8 with the ESCRT-I complex. Fluorescence microscopic analyses indicate that overexpressed Rim8 and Vps23 colocalize at cortical punctate structures, providing additional evidence of the interaction between these two proteins. Strikingly, our findings indicate that evolutionary conserved mechanisms control the recruitment of the ESCRT machinery to Pal/Rim proteins in fungi and retroviral Gag proteins in animal cells. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


De Caceres I.I.,La Paz University Hospital | Cortes-Sempere M.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | Moratilla C.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | MacHado-Pinilla R.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM | And 9 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2010

Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the paradigm of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment; however, it also induces de novo DNA-hypermethylation, a process that may be involved in the development of drug-resistant phenotypes by inactivating genes required for drug-cytotoxicity. By using an expression microarray analysis, we aimed to identify those genes reactivated in a set of two cisplatin (CDDP) resistant and sensitive NSCLC cell lines after epigenetic treatment. Gene expression, promoter methylation and CDDP-chemoresponse were further analyzed in three matched sets of sensitive/resistant cell lines, 23 human cancer cell lines and 36 NSCLC specimens. Results revealed specific silencing by promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 in CDDP resistant cells, whereas IGFBP-3 siRNA interference, induced resistance to CDDP in sensitive cells (P0.001). In addition, we found a strong correlation between methylation status and CDDP response in tumor specimens (P0.001). Thus, stage I patients, whose tumors harbor an unmethylated promoter, had a trend towards increased disease-free survival (DFS). We report that a loss of IGFBP-3 expression, mediated by promoter-hypermethylation, results in a reduction of tumor cell sensitivity to cisplatin in NSCLC. Basal methylation status of IGFBP-3 before treatment may be a clinical biomarker and a predictor of the chemotherapy outcome, helping to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from CDDP therapy alone or in combination with epigenetic treatment. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


PubMed | Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC UAM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation.

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